A child with an endocrine tumour may present clinically with the effects of a mass lesion, a hormone excess state or hormone deficiencies. Medical awareness of a hormone deficiency tends to lag behind that of a mass lesion. For example, the diagnosis of a tumour in the hypothalamic-pituitary region such as a craniopharyngioma is nearly always precipitated by severe persistent headache or visual loss, even though short stature and pituitary hormone deficiencies are usually already present.
Production of excess hormone by a tumour may modify growth and sexual development in a number of ways including, precocious or delayed pubertal development, virilization, feminization, gynaecomastia, gigantism and Cushing's syndrome.
Fortunately, endocrine tumours, with the exception of neuroblastoma, a tumour of the sympathetic nervous system, are uncommon in childhood. Thus pituitary tumours account for only 1% of all intracranial tumours in children but 10%18% in adults.
PINEAL TUMOURS AND SUPRASELLAR GERMINOMAS