Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising results in different cancers, and correlation between immune infiltration, expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) by tumor cells and response to immunotherapy has been reported. There is limited knowledge regarding the immune microenvironment of small bowel (SB) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). This work was aimed at characterizing the immune landscape of SB NETs. Expression of PD-L1 and programmed death-1 (PD-1) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 102 surgically resected, primary NETs of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Extent and characteristics of the tumor-associated immune infiltrate were also assessed and investigated in their prognostic potential. We detected the expression of PD-L1 in ≥1 and ≥50% of tumor cells in 40/102 (39%; 95% CI, 30–49%) and 14/102 (14%; 95% CI, 8–22%) cases respectively. Intratumor host immune response was apparently absent in 35/102 cases (34%; 95% CI, 25–44%), mild to moderate in 46/102 samples (45%, 95% CI, 35–55%), intense in 21/102 tumors (21%, 95% CI, 13–30%). Expression of PD-L1 and extent of immune infiltration were significantly higher in duodenal NETs as compared with jejunal/ileal NETs. A marked peritumoral host response was organized as ectopic lymph node-like structures in 18/102 cases (18%; 95% CI, 11–26%). Neither PD-L1 expression nor the degree of immune infiltration showed any prognostic significance. Overall, the immune landscape of SB NETs is heterogeneous, with adaptive immune resistance mechanisms prevailing in duodenal NETs. Clinical trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors should take into account the immune heterogeneity of SB NETs.
Table S1 – Clones, dilutions and timing for immunohistochemistry.
Table S2. Criteria for PD-L1 positivity interpretation.
Figure S1 – Kaplan-Meier estimates of OS and CSS. (A) OS and (B) CSS in the overall population. (C,E) OS and (D,F) CSS by PD-L1 expression.
Figure S2 – Kaplan-Meier estimates of OS and CSS. (A) OS and (B) CSS by the extent of immune infiltration. (C) OS and (D) CSS by ELNs. (E) OS and (F) CSS by intratumor infiltration of PD-1+ lymphocytes.