You are looking at 61 - 70 of 2,518 items for

  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All
Free access

Thi-Van-Trinh Tran, Cari Meinhold Kitahara, Laurence Leenhardt, Florent de Vathaire, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, and Neige Journy

In a previous systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting associations between hyper-/hypothyroidism and breast cancer incidence published through 29 January 2019, we identified a higher risk with diagnosed hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, but no association with diagnosed hypothyroidism. This 2-year updated meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of menopause in this association and the dose–response relationship with blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones. After the exclusion of studies with only mortality follow-up, with thyroid dysfunction evaluated as a cancer biomarker or after prior breast cancer diagnosis, we reviewed 25 studies that were published up to 01 December 2021 and identified in MEDLINE, the COCHRANE library, Embase, or Web of Science; of these, 9 were included in the previous meta-analysis. Risk estimates from 22 of the 25 studies were included in the meta-analysis and pooled using random-effects models. Compared to euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism diagnoses were associated with higher (pooled risk ratio (RR): 1.12, 95% CI: 1.06–1.18, 3829 exposed cases) and lower risks (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86–1.00, 5632 exposed cases) of breast cancer, respectively. The increased risk after hyperthyroidism was greater among postmenopausal women (RR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.09–1.30) and the decreased risk after hypothyroidism was more pronounced among premenopausal women (RR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.53–0.89). Among women with no prior history of thyroid disease, every 1 mIU/L increase in TSH level was associated with a 0.8% (95% CI > 0–1.5%) lower risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports an association between thyroid hormone levels and breast cancer risk, which could be modified by menopausal status.

Restricted access

Reut Halperin, Liat Arnon, Sapir Nasirov, Limor Friedensohn, Michal Gershinsky, Alona Telerman, Eitan Friedman, Rinat Bernstein-Molho, and Amit Tirosh

Multiple endocrine neoplasia 4 (MEN4) is a rare multiglandular endocrine neoplasia syndrome clinically hallmarked by primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), pituitary adenoma (PitAd), and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), clinically overlapping MEN1. The underlying mutated gene – CDKN1B, encodes for the cell-cycle regulator p27. Possible genotype–phenotype correlations in MEN4 have not been thoroughly assessed. Prompted by the findings in three Israeli MEN4 kindreds, we performed a literature review on published and unpublished data from previously reported MEN4/CDKN1B cases. Univariate analysis analyzed time-dependent risks for developing PHPT, PitAd, or NET by variant type and position along the gene. Overall, 74 MEN4 cases were analyzed. PHPT risk was 53.4% by age 60 years (mean age at diagnosis age 50.6 ± 13.9 years), risk for PitAd was 23.2% and risk for NET was 16.2% (34.4 ± 21.4 and 52.9 ± 13.9 years, respectively). The frameshift variant p.Q107fs was the most common variant identified (4/41 (9.7%) kindreds). Patients with indels had higher risk for PHPT vs point mutations (log-rank, P = 0.029). Variants in codons 94–96 were associated with higher risk for PHPT (P < 0.001) and PitAd (P = 0.031). To conclude, MEN4 is clinically distinct from MEN1, with lower risk and older age for PHPT diagnosis. We report recurrent CDKN1B frameshift variants and possible genotype–phenotype correlations.

Free access

Kaylee B Punter, Charles Chu, and Edmond Y W Chan

It has long been recognised that cancer cells critically depend on reprogrammed patterns of metabolism that can enable robust and abnormally high levels of cell proliferation. As mitochondria form hubs of cellular metabolic activity, it is reasonable to propose that pathways within these organelles can form targets that can be manipulated to compromise the ability of cancer cells to cause disease. However, mitochondria are highly multi-functional, and the full range of mechanistic inter-connections are still being unravelled to enable the full potential of targeting mitochondria in cancer therapeutics. Here, we aim to highlight the potential of modulating mitochondrial dynamics to target key metabolic or apoptotic pathways in cancer cells. Distinct roles have been demonstrated for mitochondrial fission and fusion in different cancer contexts. Targeting of factors mediating mitochondrial dynamics may be directly related to impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, which is essential to sustain cancer cell growth and can also alter sensitivity to chemotherapeutic compounds. This area is still lacking a unified model, although further investigation will more comprehensively map the underlying molecular mechanisms to enable better rational therapeutic strategies based on these pathways.

Free access

Mouna Tabebi, Peter Söderkvist, and Oliver Gimm

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations have been reported in different types of cancers and are suggested to play important roles in cancer development and metastasis. However, there is little information about its involvement in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs) formation. PCCs and PGLs are rare endocrine tumors of the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal paraganglia that can synthesize and secrete catecholamines. Over the last 3 decades, the genetic background of about 60% of PCCs/PGLs involving nuclear DNA alterations has been determined. Recently, a study showed that mitochondrial alterations can be found in around 17% of the remaining PCCs/PGLs. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge regarding both nuclear and mitochondrial alterations and their involvement in PCCs/PGLs. We also provide brief insights into the genetics and the molecular pathways associated with PCCs/PGLs and potential therapeutical targets.

Restricted access

Julie Abildgaard, Hein Vincent Stroomberg, A Kirstine Bang, Jakob Albrethsen, Laura Smedegaard Kruuse, Anders Juul, Klaus Brasso, Andreas Røder, and Niels Jørgensen

Men with high-risk, non-metastatic prostate cancer receive adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for at least 2 years according to Danish guidelines. It remains unclarified if patients regain the function of the pituitary–testis axis after cessation of ADT. Thus, we aimed to investigate the function of the pituitary–testis axis following adjuvant ADT. In this study, we included men who underwent external beam radiation therapy and ADT for high-risk prostate cancer. All patients underwent assessment of testosterone deficiency (TD) symptoms, full biochemical assessment of the pituitary–testis axis, and dynamic stimulatory tests of gonadotropin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test) and testosterone production (human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) test). Patients were diagnosed with TD based on a combination of TD symptoms and testosterone below age-specific reference ranges. TD was characterized as primary, secondary, or mixed based on serum gonadotropins and stimulatory tests. We found that among the 51 patients included in the study, the median time on ADT was 3.2 years and median time since ADT cessation was 3.8 years. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with TD; 10 had primary TD (testicular dysfunction), 11 secondary TD (pituitary dysfunction), and 7 mixed TD (combined pituitary and testicular dysfunction). An inadequate testosterone response to hCG stimulation was shown in 42 patients, whereas only 11 patients had a subnormal gonadotropin response to GnRH. We conclude that persistent TD is a common long-term consequence of adjuvant ADT in prostate cancer survivors, equally distributed between pituitary and testicular dysfunction. The study emphasizes the necessity for systematic follow-up of full pituitary–testis axis function in patients receiving adjuvant ADT.

Restricted access

Lidong Wang, Hao Tan, Yonglian Huang, Mingyue Guo, Yanxu Dong, Chenxi Liu, Huai Zhao, and Zhen Liu

TAGLN2, an actin-binding protein, functions as a binding protein to actin to facilitate the formation of intracellular cytoskeleton structures. TAGLN2 overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is reported in our previous study. This study aimed to examine the functions and molecular mechanisms of TAGLN2 in PTC. The clinical data analysis showed that TAGLN2 expression was associated with cervical lymph node metastasis in PTC. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches, as well as various cellular function, gene expression profiles, quantitative proteomics, and molecular biology experiments, were further exploited to explore the roles of TAGLN2 in PTC. The results showed that TAGLN2 overexpression significantly promoted the invasion of PTC cell lines (K1, TPC-1, and BCPAP). Besides, the results also indicated that TAGLN2 was associated with regulating proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and adhesion of PTC cells. Gene expression profile, quantitative proteomics, and Western blotting were performed to identify the relevant pathways and key downstream molecules, and Rap1/PI3K/AKT signalling pathway, ITGB5, LAMC2, CRKL, vimentin, N-cadherin, and E-cadherin were finally focused on. Moreover, rescue experiments validated the involvement of the Rap1/PI3K/AKT signalling pathway in the TAGLN2-mediated invasion of PTC cells. Therefore, TAGLN2 may promote the invasion of PTC cells via the Rap1/PI3K/AKT signalling pathway and may be served as a potential therapeutic target for PTC. Developing antagonists targeting TAGLN2 may be a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for PTC.

Restricted access

Tiffany Scully, Abora Ettela, Nathan Kase, Derek LeRoith, and Emily Jane Gallagher

Tumor uptake of exogenous cholesterol has been associated with the proliferation of various cancers. Previously, we and others have shown that hypercholesterolemia promotes tumor growth and silencing of the LDL receptor (LDLR) in high LDLR-expressing tumors reduces growth. To advance understanding of how LDL uptake promotes tumor growth, LDLR expression was amplified in breast cancer cell lines with endogenously low LDLR expression. Murine (Mvt1) and human (MDA-MB-468) breast cancer cell lines were transduced to overexpress human LDLR (LDLROE). Successful transduction was confirmed by RNA and protein analysis. Fluorescence-labeled LDL uptake was increased in both Mvt1 and MDA-MD-468 LDLROE cells. The expression of the cholesterol-metabolizing genes, ABCA1 and ABCG1, was increased, while HMGCR was decreased in the MDA-MB-468 LDLROE cells. In contrast, Mvt1 LDLROE cells showed no differences in Abca1 and Abcg1 expression and increased Hmgcr expression. Using a Seahorse analyzer, Mvt1 LDLROE cells showed increased respiration (ATP-linked and maximal) relative to controls, while no statistically significant changes in respiration in MDA-MB-468 LDLROE cells were observed. Growth of LDLROE cells was reduced in culture and in hypercholesterolemic mice by two-fold. However, the expression of proliferation-associated markers (Ki67, PCNA and BrdU-label incorporation) was not decreased in the Mvt1 LDLROE tumors and cells. Caspase-3 cleavage, which is associated with apoptosis, was increased in both the Mvt1 and MDA-MB-468 LDLROE cells relative to controls, with the Mvt1 LDLROE cells also showing decreased phosphorylation of p44/42MAPK. Taken together, our work suggests that while additional LDL can promote tumor growth, unregulated and prolonged LDL uptake is detrimental.

Open access

Yuanliang Li, Yiying Guo, Zixuan Cheng, Chao Tian, Yingying Chen, Ruao Chen, Fuhuan Yu, Yanfen Shi, Fei Su, Shuhua Zhao, Zhizheng Wang, Jie Luo, and Huangying Tan

The genetic characteristics of rectal neuroendocrine tumors (R-NETs) were poorly understood. Depicting the genetic characteristics may provide a biological basis for prognosis prediction and novel treatment development. Tissues of 18 R-NET patients were analyzed using whole-exome sequencing. The median tumor mutation burden (TMB) and microsatellite instability (MSI) were 1.15 Muts/MB (range, 0.03-23.28) and 0.36 (range, 0.00-10.97) respectively. Genes involved in P53 signaling, PI3K-AKT signaling, DNA damage repair, WNT signaling, etc. were frequently altered. Higher TMB (P = 0.078), higher CNV (P = 0.110), somatic mutation of CCDC168 (P = 0.049), HMCN1 (P = 0.040), MYO10 (P = 0.007), and amplification of ZC3H13 (P < 0.001) were associated with shorter OS. Potentially targetable gene alterations (PTGAs) were seen in 72% of the patients. FGFR1 amplification (22%) was the most common PTGA followed by BARD1 and BRCA2 mutation (each 17%). As for gene variations associated with the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), FAT1 alteration (39%) and PTEN depletion (28%) were commonly observed. In conclusion, frequently altered oncogenic pathways might contribute to the development and progression of R-NETs. Gene alterations significantly associated with prognosis might be potential novel targets. Targeted therapy might be a promising strategy as targetable alterations were prevalent in R-NETs. FAT1 alteration and PTEN depletion might be the main genetic alterations influencing the response to ICB besides overall low TMB and MSI in R-NETs.

Free access

D Grahame Hardie

Otto Warburg published the first paper describing what became known as the Warburg effect in 1923. All that was known about glucose metabolism at that time was that it occurred in two stages: (i) fermentation (glycolysis) in which glucose was converted to lactate, which did not require oxygen, and (ii) oxidative metabolism, in which the carbon atoms derived from glycolysis were fully oxidized to carbon dioxide, which did require oxygen. Warburg discovered that most tumour tissues produced a large amount of lactate that was reduced but not eliminated in the presence of oxygen, while most normal tissues produced a much smaller amount of lactate that was eliminated by the provision of oxygen. These findings were clearly well ahead of their time because it was another 80 years before they were to have any major impact, and even today the mechanisms underlying the Warburg effect are not completely understood.

Restricted access

Tae-Hwan Kim, Mi Yeon Lee, Sung Min Jin, and Sang Hyuk Lee

The impact of serum thyroid hormone levels on thyroid cancer risk is unclear. Some studies reported that elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is associated with higher risk for incidence of thyroid cancer, but other studies reported no relationship. We conducted a large cohort study in 164,596 South Korean men and women who were free of thyroid cancer at baseline and underwent health examination with hormone levels of thyroid function. A parametric proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. During 2,277,749.78 person-years of follow-up, 1280 incident thyroid cancers were identified (men = 593, women = 687). Among men, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for thyroid cancer comparing low levels of TSH with normal levels of TSH was 2.95 (1.67–5.23), whereas the corresponding HR (95% CI) in women was 1.5 (0.88–2.55). High levels of free T4 and free T3 were also associated with incident thyroid cancer in both men and women. In clinical implication, overt hyperthyroidism is associated with thyroid cancer in both men and women. Within the euthyroid range, the highest tertile of TSH was associated with a lower risk of thyroid cancer than the lowest TSH tertile and the highest FT4 tertile was associated with a higher risk of thyroid cancer than the lowest FT4 tertile in both men and women. Our finding indicates that low levels of TSH and high levels of FT4, even within the normal range, were associated with an increased risk of incident thyroid cancer.