Despite a general role for the HIF hydroxylase system in cellular oxygen sensing and tumour hypoxia, cancer-associated mutations of genes in this pathway, including PHD2, PHD1, EPAS1 (encoding HIF-2α) are highly tissue-restricted, being observed in pseudohypoxic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) but rarely, if ever, in other tumours. In an effort to understand that paradox and gain insights into the pathogenesis of pseudohypoxic PPGL, we constructed mice in which the principal HIF prolyl hydroxylase, Phd2, is inactivated in the adrenal medulla using TH-restricted Cre recombinase. Investigation of these animals revealed a gene expression pattern closely mimicking that of pseudohypoxic PPGL. Spatially resolved analyses demonstrated a binary distribution of two contrasting patterns of gene expression among adrenal medullary cells. Phd2 inactivation resulted in a marked shift in this distribution towards a Pnmt −/Hif-2α +/Rgs5 + population. This was associated with morphological abnormalities of adrenal development, including ectopic TH+ cells within the adrenal cortex and external to the adrenal gland. These changes were ablated by combined inactivation of Phd2 with Hif-2α, but not Hif-1α. However, they could not be reproduced by inactivation of Phd2 in adult life, suggesting that they arise from dysregulation of this pathway during adrenal development. Together with the clinical observation that pseudohypoxic PPGL manifests remarkably high heritability, our findings suggest that this type of tumour likely arises from dysregulation of a tissue-restricted action of the PHD2/HIF-2α pathway affecting adrenal development in early life and provides a model for the study of the relevant processes.
Luise Eckardt, Maria Prange-Barczynska, Emma J Hodson, James W Fielding, Xiaotong Cheng, Joanna D C C Lima, Samvid Kurlekar, Gillian Douglas, Peter J Ratcliffe, and Tammie Bishop
Adel Mandl, James M Welch, Gayathri Kapoor, Vaishali I Parekh, David S Schrump, R Taylor Ripley, Mary F Walter, Jaydira Del Rivero, Smita Jha, William F Simonds, Robert T Jensen, Lee S Weinstein, Jenny E Blau, and Sunita K Agarwal
Patients with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome carry germline heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the MEN1 gene which predisposes them to develop various endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. Over 90% of the tumors show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome 11q13, the MEN1 locus, due to somatic loss of the wild-type MEN1 allele. Thymic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) or thymic carcinoids are uncommon in MEN1 patients but are a major cause of mortality. LOH at the MEN1 locus has not been demonstrated in thymic tumors. The goal of this study was to investigate the molecular aspects of MEN1-associated thymic tumors including LOH at the MEN1 locus and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify genes associated with tumor development and potential targeted therapy. A retrospective chart review of 294 patients with MEN1 germline mutations identified 14 patients (4.8%) with thymic tumors (12 thymic NETs and 2 thymomas). LOH at the MEN1 locus was identified in 10 tumors including the 2 thymomas, demonstrating that somatic LOH at the MEN1 locus is also the mechanism for thymic tumor development. Unsupervised principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of RNA-Seq data showed that thymic NETs formed a homogenous transcriptomic group separate from thymoma and normal thymus. KSR2 (kinase suppressor of Ras 2), that promotes Ras-mediated signaling, was abundantly expressed in thymic NETs, a potential therapeutic target. The molecular insights gained from our study about thymic tumors combined with similar data from other MEN1-associated tumors may lead to better surveillance and treatment of these rare tumors.
Salma Kaochar, Aleksandra Rusin, Christopher Foley, Kimal Rajapakshe, Matthew Robertson, Darlene Skapura, Cammy Mason, Karen BermandeRuiz, Alexey Mikhailovich Tyryshkin, Jenny Deng, Jin Na Shin, Warren Fiskus, Jianrong Dong, Shixia Huang, Nora M. Navone, Christel M Davis, Erik A Ehli, Cristian Coarfa, and Nicholas Mitsiades
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains highly lethal and in need of novel, actionable therapeutic targets. The pioneer factor GATA2 is a significant prostate cancer (PC) driver and linked to poor prognosis. GATA2 directly promotes androgen receptor (AR) gene expression (both full-length and splice-variant) and facilitates AR binding to chromatin, recruitment of coregulators, and target gene transcription. Unfortunately, there is no clinically applicable GATA2 inhibitor available at the moment. Using a bioinformatics algorithm, we screened in silico 2,650 clinically relevant drugs for a potential GATA2 inhibitor. Validation studies used cytotoxicity assays (MTT), global gene expression analysis, reporter assay, reverse phase protein array analysis (RPPA), and immunoblotting. We examined target engagement via cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), ChIP-qPCR, and GATA2 DNA-binding assay. We identified the vasodilator dilazep as a potential GATA2 inhibitor and confirmed on-target activity via CETSA. Dilazep exerted anticancer activity across a broad panel of GATA2-dependent PC cell lines in vitro and in a PDX model in vivo. Dilazep inhibited GATA2 recruitment to chromatin and suppressed the cell cycle program, transcriptional programs driven by GATA2, AR, and c-MYC, and the expression of several oncogenic drivers, including AR, c-MYC, FOXM1, CENPF, EZH2, UBE2C, and RRM2, as well as of several mediators of metastasis, DNA damage repair and stemness. In conclusion, we provide, via an extensive compendium of methodologies, proof-of-principle that a small molecule can inhibit GATA2 function and suppress its downstream AR, c-MYC, and other PC-driving effectors. We propose GATA2 as a therapeutic target in CRPC.
Andreas Venizelos, Hege Elvebakken, Aurel Perren, Oleksii Nikolaienko, Wei Deng, Inger Marie B. Lothe, Anne Couvelard, Geir Olav Hjortland, Anna Sundlöv, Johanna B. Svensson, Harrish Garresori, Christian Kersten, Eva Hofsli, Sonke Detlefsen, Merete Krogh, Halfdan Sorbye, and Stian Knappskog
High-grade (HG) gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are rare but have a very poor prognosis and represent a severely understudied class of tumours. Molecular data for HG GEP-NEN are limited and treatment strategies for the carcinoma subgroup (HG GEP-NEC) are extrapolated from small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). After pathological re-evaluation, we analysed DNA from tumours and matched blood samples from 181 HG GEP-NEN patients; 152 neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and 29 neuroendocrine tumours (NET G3). Based on sequencing of 360 cancer related genes, we assessed mutations and copy number alterations (CNA). For NEC, frequently mutated genes were TP53 (64%), APC (28%), KRAS (22%) and BRAF (20%). RB1 was only mutated in 14%, but CNAs affecting RB1 were seen in 34%. Other frequent copy number losses were ARID1A (35%), ESR1 (25%) and ATM (31%). Frequent amplifications/gains were found in MYC (51%) and KDM5A (45%). While these molecular features had limited similarities with SCLC, we found potentially targetable alterations in 66% of the NEC samples. Mutations and CNA varied according to primary tumour site with BRAF mutations mainly seen in colon (49%), and FBXW7 mutations mainly seen in rectal cancers (25%). 8/152 (5.3%) NEC were microsatellite instable (MSI). NET G3 had frequent mutations in MEN1 (21%), ATRX (17%), DAXX, SETD2 and TP53 (each 14%). We show molecular differences in HG GEP-NEN, related to morphological differentiation and site of origin. Limited similarities to SCLC and a high fraction of targetable alterations indicates a high potential for better personalized treatments.
Ville Paakinaho and Jorma J Palvimo
Steroid receptors (SRs) constitute an important class of signal-dependent transcription factors (TFs). They regulate a variety of key biological processes and are crucial drug targets in many disease states. In particular, estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) drive the development and progression of breast and prostate cancer, respectively. Thus, they represent the main specific drug targets in these diseases. Recent evidence has suggested that the crosstalk between signal-dependent TFs is an important step in the reprogramming of chromatin sites; a signal-activated TF can expand or restrict the chromatin binding of another TF. This crosstalk can rewire gene programs and thus alter biological processes and influence the progression of disease. Lately, it has been postulated that there may be an important crosstalk between the AR and the ER with other SRs. Especially, progesterone (PR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) can reprogram chromatin binding of ER and gene programs in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, GR can take the place of AR in antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer cells. Here, we review the current knowledge of the crosstalk between SRs in breast and prostate cancers. We emphasize how the activity of ER and AR on chromatin can be modulated by other SRs on a genome-wide scale. We also highlight the knowledge gaps in the interplay of SRs and their complex interactions with other signaling pathways and suggest how to experimentally fill in these gaps.
Alexa Childs, Christopher D Steele, Clare Vesely, Francesca M Rizzo, Leah Ensell, Helen Lowe, Pawan Dhami, Heli Vaikkinen, Tu Vinh Luong, Lucia Conde, Javier Herrero, Martyn Caplin, Christos Toumpanakis, Christina Thirlwell, John A Hartley, Nischalan Pillay, and Tim Meyer
Single-cell profiling of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as part of a minimally invasive liquid biopsy presents an opportunity to characterize and monitor tumor heterogeneity and evolution in individual patients. In this study, we aimed to compare single-cell copy number variation (CNV) data with tissue and define the degree of intra- and inter-patient genomic heterogeneity. We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) whole-genome CNV analysis of 125 single CTCs derived from seven patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) alongside matched white blood cells (WBC), formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE), and fresh frozen (FF) samples. CTC CNV profiling demonstrated recurrent chromosomal alterations in previously reported NEN copy number hotspots, including the prognostically relevant loss of chromosome 18. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed CTCs with distinct clonal lineages as well as significant intra- and inter-patient genomic heterogeneity, including subclonal alterations not detectable by bulk analysis and previously unreported in NEN. Notably, we also demonstrated the presence of genomically distinct CTCs according to the enrichment strategy utilized (EpCAM-dependent vs size-based). This work has significant implications for the identification of therapeutic targets, tracking of evolutionary change, and the implementation of CTC-biomarkers in cancer.
J T W Kwon, R J Bryant, and E E Parkes
The landscape of cancer treatment has been transformed over the past decade by the success of immune-targeting therapies. However, despite sipuleucel-T being the first-ever approved vaccine for cancer and the first immunotherapy licensed for prostate cancer in 2010, immunotherapy has since seen limited success in the treatment of prostate cancer. The tumour microenvironment of prostate cancer presents particular barriers for immunotherapy. Moreover, prostate cancer is distinguished by being one of only two solid tumours where increased T cell-infiltration correlates with a poorer, rather than improved, outlook. Here, we discuss the specific aspects of the prostate cancer microenvironment that converge to create a challenging microenvironment, including myeloid-derived immune cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts. By exploring the immune microenvironment of defined molecular subgroups of prostate cancer, we propose an immunogenomic subtyping approach to single-agent and combination immune-targeting strategies that could lead to improved outcomes in prostate cancer treatment.
Ha Nguyen, Komal Shah, Steven G Waguespack, Mimi I Hu, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Maria E Cabanillas, Naifa L Busaidy, Roland Bassett, Shouhao Zhou, Priyanka C Iyer, Garrett Simmons, Diana Kaya, Marie Pitteloud, Sumit K Subudhi, Adi Diab, and Ramona Dadu
Data on the diagnosis, natural course and management of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-related hypophysitis (irH) are limited. We propose this study to validate the diagnostic criteria, describe characteristics and hormonal recovery and investigate factors associated with the occurrence and recovery of irH. A retrospective study including patients with suspected irH at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 5/2003 to 8/2017 was conducted. IrH was defined as: (1) ACTH or TSH deficiency plus MRI changes or (2) ACTH and TSH deficiencies plus headache/fatigue in the absence of MRI findings. We found that of 83 patients followed for a median of 1.75 years (range 0.6–3), the proposed criteria used at initial evaluation accurately identified 61/62 (98%) irH cases. In the irH group (n = 62), the most common presentation was headache (60%), fatigue (66%), central hypothyroidism (94%), central adrenal insufficiency (69%) and MRI changes (77%). Compared with non-ipilimumab (ipi) regimens, ipi has a stronger association with irH occurrence (P = 0.004) and a shorter time to irH development (P < 0.01). Thyroid, gonadal and adrenal axis recovery occurred in 24, 58 and 0% patients, respectively. High-dose steroids (HDS) or ICI discontinuation was not associated with hormonal recovery. In the non-irH group (n = 19), one patient had isolated central hypothyroidism and six had isolated central adrenal insufficiency. All remained on hormone therapy at the last follow-up. We propose a strict definition of irH that identifies the vast majority of patients. HDS and ICI discontinuation is not always beneficial. Long-term follow-up to assess recovery is needed.
Kathleen A Luckett, Jennifer R Cracchiolo, Gnana P Krishnamoorthy, Luis Javier Leandro-Garcia, James Nagarajah, Mahesh Saqcena, Rona Lester, Soo Y Im, Zhen Zhao, Scott W Lowe, Elisa de Stanchina, Eric J Sherman, Alan L Ho, Steven D Leach, Jeffrey A Knauf, and James A Fagin
Constitutive MAPK activation silences genes required for iodide uptake and thyroid hormone biosynthesis in thyroid follicular cells. Accordingly, most BRAFV600E papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) are refractory to radioiodide (RAI) therapy. MAPK pathway inhibitors rescue thyroid-differentiated properties and RAI responsiveness in mice and patient subsets with BRAFV600E-mutant PTC. TGFB1 also impairs thyroid differentiation and has been proposed to mediate the effects of mutant BRAF. We generated a mouse model of BRAFV600E-PTC with thyroid-specific knockout of the Tgfbr1 gene to investigate the role of TGFB1 on thyroid-differentiated gene expression and RAI uptake in vivo. Despite appropriate loss of Tgfbr1, pSMAD levels remained high, indicating that ligands other than TGFB1 were engaging in this pathway. The activin ligand subunits Inhba and Inhbb were found to be overexpressed in BRAFV600E-mutant thyroid cancers. Treatment with follistatin, a potent inhibitor of activin, or vactosertib, which inhibits both TGFBR1 and the activin type I receptor ALK4, induced a profound inhibition of pSMAD in BRAFV600E-PTCs. Blocking SMAD signaling alone was insufficient to enhance iodide uptake in the setting of constitutive MAPK activation. However, combination treatment with either follistatin or vactosertib and the MEK inhibitor CKI increased 124I uptake compared to CKI alone. In summary, activin family ligands converge to induce pSMAD in Braf-mutant PTCs. Dedifferentiation of BRAFV600E-PTCs cannot be ascribed primarily to activation of SMAD. However, targeting TGFβ/activin-induced pSMAD augmented MAPK inhibitor effects on iodine incorporation into BRAF tumor cells, indicating that these two pathways exert interdependent effects on the differentiation state of thyroid cancer cells.
Mehtap Derya Aydemirli, Jaap D H van Eendenburg, Tom van Wezel, Jan Oosting, Willem E Corver, Ellen Kapiteijn, and Hans Morreau
Finding targetable gene fusions can expand the limited treatment options in radioactive iodine-refractory (RAI-r) thyroid cancer. To that end, we established a novel cell line ‘JVE404’ derived from an advanced RAI-r papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patient, harboring an EML4-ALK gene fusion variant 3 (v3). Different EML4-ALK gene fusions can have different clinical repercussions. JVE404 cells were evaluated for cell viability and cell signaling in response to ALK inhibitors crizotinib, ceritinib and lorlatinib, in parallel to the patient’s treatment. He received, after first-line lenvatinib, crizotinib (Drug Rediscovery Protocol (DRUP) trial), and lorlatinib (compassionate use). In vitro treatment with crizotinib or ceritinib decreased viability in JVE404, but most potently and significantly only with lorlatinib. Western blot analysis showed a near total decrease of 99% and 89%, respectively, in pALK and pERK expression levels in JVE404 cells with lorlatinib, in contrast to remaining signal intensities of a half and a third of control, respectively, with crizotinib. The patient had a 6-month lasting stable disease on crizotinib, but progressive disease occurred, including the finding of cerebral metastases, at 8 months. With lorlatinib, partial response, including clinical cerebral activity, was already achieved at 11 weeks’ use and ongoing partial response at 7 months. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case describing a patient-specific targeted treatment with lorlatinib based on an EML4-ALK gene fusion v3 in a thyroid cancer patient, and own cancer cell line. Tumor-agnostic targeted therapy may provide valuable treatment options in personalized medicine.