Guoliang Wang, Na Ren, Shengcai Wang, Zhang Xuexi, Yanzhen Li, Nian Sun, Qiaoyin Liu, Jie Zhang, Wenqi Song, and Xin Ni
It is uncertain whether serum TSH concentration is an independent risk factor for the malignancy of pediatric thyroid nodules. We sought for the association of serum TSH concentration with the malignancy of pediatric thyroid nodules and with the characteristics of pediatric thyroid cancer. A total of 219 pediatric thyroid nodule patients were collected retrospectively for 5 consecutive years. The medical records collected included sex, age, serum TSH concentration, thyroid autoantibody status, thyroid ultra-sonography parameters, histological type, and pathological TNM stages. The serum TSH concentrations were compared between benign and malignant nodules or corresponding subgroups. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of TSH concentration with the malignancy of thyroid nodules and with the characteristics of pediatric thyroid cancer. There was no significant difference in TSH concentration between benign nodule and thyroid cancer in total subjects and various subgroups. The serum TSH level not correlated with the malignancy of thyroid nodules in univariate analysis, but negatively correlated with the malignancy of thyroid nodules (odds ratio = 0.856, p = 0.013) after adjusting for the patients’ sex, age, thyroid autoantibody status, and nodule size. The serum TSH level not correlated with the tumor characteristics in pediatric thyroid cancer patients. In conclusion, the serum TSH concentration seems not to be a carcinogenic factor in pediatric thyroid nodule patients, nor to be an independent risk factor for characteristics of pre-existing pediatric thyroid cancers.
Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Abeer Al-Amr, Mysoon M Al-Ansari, Pulicat S. Manogaran, Hindi Al-Hindi, and Ali S Alzahrani
Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine neoplasm. Despite its good prognosis, it can lead to significant mortality due to metastasis and recurrence. However, the factors involved in metastasis are not well studied. Therefore, we selected matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2) and determined whether it has any role in thyroid cancer. We sequenced the exons of MMP2 in 211 samples including 16 multi-nodular goiters and 195 differentiated thyroid cancers. We identified four non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MMP2 gene in 3.06% (6/195) thyroid cancers. Of the 4 MMP2 SNPs, 3 (75%) concomitantly had BRAFV600E. Hence, we speculated that the MMP2 SNPs may likely cooperate with BRAFV600E in promoting tumor aggressiveness. Overexpression of two MMP2 SNPs (P38L and T458I) exhibited markedly enhanced gelatinase activity with an intact dimerization and induced strong cortactin foci formation in HEK293T cells. Stable expression of the two MMP2 SNPs in BRAFV600E positive BCPAP cells dramatically enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, and focus formation. Analysis of the morphology of MMP2 SNP bearing BCPAPV600E cells exhibited highly invasive phenotypes characterized by a high rate of wound healing and enhanced cell invasion compared with parental BCPAPV600E cells bearing vector. We also determined that BCPAPV600E cells stably transfected with MMP2 SNPs were highly sensitive to the treatment of BRAF inhibitor, PLX4720. Our study demonstrates that MMP2 SNPs could cooperate with BRAFV600E to promote oncogenicity, migration, and invasiveness of PTC cells. These results suggest that a subset of papillary thyroid cancer with this genetic makeup can benefit from BRAF-mediated therapeutic interventions.
Mintallah Haider, Satya Das, Taymeyah Al-Toubah, Eleonora Pelle, Ghassan El-Haddad, and Jonathan Strosberg
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using 177Lu-DOTATATE has been approved for the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic NETs. An understanding of benefits and risks is important for the appropriate implementation of this therapy. This review summarizes study data supporting the use of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs for the treatment of advanced NETs and highlights risks, including potential toxicities in specific populations. Key ongoing clinical trials, including randomized studies, are designed to better define the position of PRRT within the broader therapeutic landscape. Preclinical and early-phase human studies are focused on the development of novel somatostatin-receptor agonists and antagonists, new radionuclides, and radiosensitizing combination therapies.
James C Yao, Jonathan Strosberg, Nicola Fazio, Marianne E Pavel, Emily Bergsland, Philippe Ruszniewski, Daniel M Halperin, Daneng Li, Salvatore Tafuto, Nitya Raj, Davide Campana, Susumu Hijioka, Markus Raderer, Rosine Guimbaud, Pablo Gajate, Sara Pusceddu, Albert Reising, Evgeny Degtyarev, Mark Shilkrut, Simantini Eddy, and Simron Singh
Spartalizumab, a humanized anti-programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) MAB, was evaluated in patients with well-differentiated metastatic grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and poorly differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NEC). In this phase II, multicenter, single-arm study, patients received spartalizumab 400 mg every 4 weeks until confirmed disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was confirmed overall response rate (ORR) according to blinded independent review committee using response evaluation criteria in solid tumors 1.1. The study enrolled 95 patients in the NET group (30, 32 and 33 in the thoracic, gastrointestinal, and pancreatic cohorts, respectively), and 21 patients in the GEP-NEC group. The ORR was 7.4% (95% CI: 3.0, 14.6) in the NET group (thoracic, 16.7%; gastrointestinal, 3.1%; pancreatic, 3.0%), which was below the predefined success criterion of ≥10%, and 4.8% (95% CI: 0.1, 23.8) in the GEP-NEC group. In the NET and GEP-NEC groups, the 12-month progression-free survival was 19.5 and 0%, respectively, and the 12-month overall survival was 73.5 and 19.1%, respectively. The ORR was higher in patients with ≥1% PD-L1 expression in immune/tumor cells or ≥1% CD8+ cells at baseline. The most common adverse events considered as spartalizumab-related included fatigue (29.5%) and nausea (10.5%) in the NET group, and increased aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (each 14.3%) in the GEP-NEC group. The efficacy of spartalizumab was limited in this heterogeneous and heavily pre-treated population; however, the results in the thoracic cohort are encouraging and warrants further investigation. Adverse events were manageable and consistent with previous experience.
Elena Stauffer, Peter Weber, Theresa Heider, Claudia Dalke, Andreas Blutke, Axel Walch, Gerald Burgstaller, Nikko Brix, Kirsten Lauber, Horst Zitzelsberger, Kristian Unger, and Martin Selmansberger
Thyroid carcinoma incidence rates in western societies are among the fastest rising, compared to all malignant tumors over the past two decades. While risk factors such as age and exposure to ionizing radiation are known, early-state carcinogenic processes or pre-lesions are poorly understood or unknown. This study aims at the identification and characterization of early-state radiation-associated neoplastic processes by histologic and transcriptomic analyses of thyroid tissues derived from a mouse model. Comprehensive histological examination of 246 thyroids (164 exposed, 82 non-exposed) was carried out. Proliferative and normal tissues from exposed cases and normal tissue from non-exposed cases were collected by laser-capture microdissection, followed by RNAseq transcriptomic profiling using a low input 3′-library preparation protocol, differential gene expression analysis and functional association by gene set enrichment analysis. Nine exposed samples exhibited proliferative lesions, while none of the non-exposed samples showed histological abnormalities, indicating an association of ionizing radiation exposure with histological abnormalities. Activated immune response signaling and deregulated metabolic processes were observed in irradiated tissue with normal histology compared to normal tissue from non-exposed samples. Proliferative lesions compared to corresponding normal tissues showed enrichment for mainly proliferation-associated gene sets. Consistently, proliferative lesion samples from exposed mice showed elevated proliferation-associated signaling and deregulated metabolic processes compared to normal samples from non-exposed mice. Our findings suggest that a molecular deregulation may be detectable in histologically normal thyroid tissues and in early proliferative lesions in the frame of multi-step progression from irradiated normal tissue to tumorous lesions.
Androgens play a fundamental role in the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, inducing both the ACE-2 receptor to which SARS-CoV-2 binds to gain entry into the cell, and TMPRS22, the transmembrane protease that primes the viral spike protein for efficient infection. The United States stands alone among developed nations in permitting one androgen, oral DHEA, to be freely available OTC and online as a ‘dietary supplement’. DHEA is widely used by males in the US to offset the age-related decline in circulating androgens. This fact may contribute to the disparate statistics of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in this country. In regulatory antithesis, every other developed nation regulates DHEA as a controlled substance. DHEA is an extremely potent inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), with uniquely unstable uncompetitive inhibition kinetics. This has particular relevance to COVID-19 because G6PD-deficient human cells have been demonstrated to be exceptionally sensitive to infection by human coronavirus. Because DHEA is lipophilic and freely passes into cells, oral DHEA bypasses the normal controls regulating androgen biology and uncompetitive G6PD inhibition. DHEA’s status as a ‘dietary supplement’ means that no clinical trials demonstrating safety have been performed, and, in the absence of physician supervision, no data on adverse events have been collected. During the current pandemic, the unrestricted availability of oral DHEA as a ‘dietary supplement’ cannot be considered safe without proof from placebo-controlled clinical trials that it is not contributing to the severity of COVID-19. US physicians may therefore wish to query their patients’ use of DHEA.
Ziqiang Yuan, Juliet C Gardiner, Elaine C Maggi, Shuyu Huang, Asha Adem, Svetlana Bagdasarov, Guiying Li, Sylvia Lee, Daniel Slegowski, Alyssa Exarchakis, James R Howe, Edmund C Lattime, Xingxing Zang, and Steven K Libutti
The B7 family, and their receptors, the CD28 family, are major immune checkpoints that regulate T-cell activation and function. In the present study, we explore the role of two B7 immune-checkpoints: HERV-H LTR-Associating Protein 2 (HHLA2) and B7 Family Member, H4 (B7x), in the progression of gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GINETs and PNETs). We demonstrated that both HHLA2 and B7x were expressed to a high degree in human GINETs and PNETs. We determined that the expression of B7x and HHLA2 correlates with higher grade and higher incidence of nodal and distant spread. Furthermore, we confirmed that HIF-1α overexpression is associated with the upregulation of B7x both in our in vivo (animal model) and in vitro (cell culture) models. When grown in vitro, islet tumor β-cells lack B7x expression, unless cultured under hypoxic conditions, which results in both hypoxia-inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF-1α) and B7x upregulation. In vivo, we demonstrated that Men1/B7x double knockout (KO) mice (with loss of B7x expression) exhibited decreased islet β-cell proliferation and tumor transformation accompanied by increased T-cell infiltration compared with Men1 single knockout mice. We have also shown that systemic administration of a B7x mAb to our Men1 KO mice with PNETs promotes an antitumor response mediated by increased T-cell infiltration. These findings suggest that B7x may be a critical mediator of tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment of NETs. Therefore, targeting B7x offers an attractive strategy for the immunotherapy of patients suffering from NETs.
Trisha Dwight, Edward Kim, Karine Bastard, Diana E Benn, Graeme Eisenhofer, Susan Richter, Massimo Mannelli, Elena Rapizzi, Aleksander Prejbisz, Mariola Pęczkowska, Karel Pacak, and Roderick Clifton-Bligh
Mosaic or somatic EPAS1 mutations are associated with a range of phenotypes including pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma (PPGL), polycythemia and somatostatinoma. The pathogenic potential of germline EPAS1 variants however is not well understood. We report a number of germline EPAS1 variants occurring in patients with PPGL, including a novel variant c.739C>A (p.Arg247Ser); a previously described variant c.1121T>A (p.Phe374Tyr); several rare variants, c.581A>G (p.His194Arg), c.2353C>A (p.Pro785Thr) and c.2365A>G (p.Ile789Val); a common variant c.2296A>C (p.Thr766Pro). We performed detailed functional studies to understand their pathogenic role in PPGL. In transient transfection studies, EPAS1/HIF-2α p.Arg247Ser, p.Phe374Tyr and p.Pro785Thr were all stable in normoxia. In co-immunoprecipitation assays, only the novel variant p.Arg247Ser showed diminished interaction with pVHL. A direct interaction between HIF-2α Arg247 and pVHL was confirmed in structural models. Transactivation was assessed by means of a HRE-containing reporter gene in transiently transfected cells, and significantly higher reporter activity was only observed with EPAS1/HIF-2α p.Phe374Tyr and p.Pro785Thr. In conclusion, three germline EPAS1 variants (c.739C>A (p.Arg247Ser), c.1121T>A (p.Phe374Tyr) and c.2353C>A (p.Pro785Thr)) all have some functional features in common with somatic activating mutations. Our findings suggest that these three germline variants are hypermorphic alleles that may act as modifiers to the expression of PPGLs.