In some primaries, African American race/ethnicity predisposes to higher stage and worse survival. We tested for differences in cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) according to African American vs Caucasian race/ethnicity. We hypothesized that African Americans present with higher tumor stage and grade, do not receive the same treatment, and experience worse oncological outcomes than Caucasians. Within Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 1016 ACC patients: 123 (12.1%) African Americans vs 893 (87.9%) Caucasians. Propensity score matching (PSM) (age, sex, marital status, grade, T, N, and M stages, and treatment type), Poisson-smoothed cumulative incidence plots, and competing risk regression (CRR) were used. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans were more frequently unmarried (56.9% vs 35.5%, P < 0.001). No clinically meaningful or statistically significant differences were observed for age, grade, T, N, and M stages, as well as treatment type (all P > 0.05). After PSM (1:4), 123 African Americans and 492 Caucasians remained and were included in CRR analysis. In multivariable CRR models, CSM and OCM rates were not different between the two race/ethnicities (hazard ratio: 0.84, P = 0.3). In African Americans, 5-year CSM rates were 31.2% and 75.3% in European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) stages I-II and III-IV, respectively vs 32.9% and 75.4% in Caucasians. Overall 5-year OCM rates were 11.0% vs 10.1% in respectively African Americans and Caucasians. Unlike other primaries, in ACC, African American race/ethnicity is not associated with higher disease stage at initial diagnosis or worse survival.
Andrea Panunzio, Stefano Tappero, Lukas Hohenhorst, Cristina Cano Garcia, Mattia Piccinelli, Francesco Barletta, Zhe Tian, Alessandro Tafuri, Alberto Briganti, Ottavio De Cobelli, Felix K H Chun, Derya Tilki, Carlo Terrone, Fred Saad, Shahrokh F Shariat, Isabelle Bourdeau, Maria Angela Cerruto, Alessandro Antonelli, and Pierre I Karakiewicz
Masaki Shiota, Shuichi Tatarano, Toshiyuki Kamoto, Hideyasu Matsuyama, Hideki Sakai, Tsukasa Igawa, Tomomi Kamba, Naohiro Fujimoto, Yuya Sekine, Hiroko Kimura, Shintaro Narita, Naoki Terada, Yukihide Momozawa, Shusuke Akamatsu, Tomonori Habuchi, Akira Yokomizo, Seiji Naito, and Masatoshi Eto
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been widely used for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, prognosis and adverse events (AEs) vary among patients. This study aimed to identify genetic markers able to predict the outcome of ADT. Japanese patients treated with primary ADT for advanced prostate cancer in the KYUCOG-1401 trial were enrolled as a development set. A distinct population of advanced prostate cancer cases treated with ADT was included as a validation set. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) at 1 year and AEs including de novo diabetes mellitus (DM), arthralgia, and de novo dyslipidemia were identified in the development set by a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The SNPs associated with rPFS in the development study were then genotyped in the validation set. GWAS followed by validation identified SNPs (rs76237622 in PRR27 and rs117573572 in MTAP) that were associated with overall survival (OS) in ADT. A genetic prognostic model using these SNPs showed excellent predictive efficacy for PFS and OS in ADT. In addition, GWAS showed that several SNPs were associated with de novo DM, arthralgia, and de novo dyslipidemia in ADT. This study identified novel multiple SNPs that correlated with outcomes in ADT. Future studies on correlations affecting the therapeutic efficacy of ADT-based combination therapies would make a valuable contribution to the development of personalized medicine.
Wiebke Werner, Katharina Detjen, Alix Bruneau, Isabella Lurje, Natalie Nestel, Henning Jann, Frank Tacke, Bertram Wiedenmann, Christoph Roderburg, and Linda Hammerich
Clinical management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms remains challenging. We recently introduced the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3LG) as a possible biomarker for a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment. Here, we put a spotlight on the quantitative assessment of classical dendritic cells (cDC) and T cells in the context of FLT3LG mRNA levels in a retrospective study on neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G2/G3 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of pancreatic and gastric origin. The abundance of cDC and T cells and their relevant subpopulations were determined by immunofluorescent staining and correlated with FLT3LG mRNA levels as well as clinical outcomes. Immune cell counts attested to highly variable infiltration densities. Samples with the presence of cDC or high numbers of T cells exhibited increased FLT3LG expression. Abundance of cDC, defined as HLA-DR+CD11c+ cells with CLEC9a (cDC1) or CD1c (cDC2), as well as T cells correlated with FLT3LG mRNA levels and predicted disease-specific survival. Combining FLT3LG and T cell counts further improved this prediction. Therefore, tumor-infiltrating cDC and T cells are prognostic markers in NET G2/G3 or NEC and FLT3LG mRNA may serve as a simple-to-use biomarker for a quantitative estimate of their abundance, mandating prospective evaluation in the context of immune-targeted therapies.
Melissa Bolier, Aart-Jan van der Lelij, Geert Janssens, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, and Sebastian J C M M Neggers
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a common complication in survivors of cancer and patients with tumors of the pituitary region. Growth hormone replacement therapy (GHT) has proven beneficial effects, including increased growth velocity, positive effects on body composition and skeletal integrity, and increased quality of life. However, due to known pro-proliferative, angiogenic, and anti-apoptotic properties of growth hormone, there are still some concerns about the safety of GHT in survivors. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the long-term sequelae, and subsequently long-term safety, of GHT in survivors of (childhood) cancer and patients with tumors of the pituitary region. We identified predominantly reassuring results regarding the safety of survivors with GHT, although we must take into account the shortcomings of some studies and limited information on adult cancer survivors. Besides the already increased risk for second neoplasms, recurrences, or mortality in survivors due to host-, disease-, and treatment-related factors, we could not identify an increased risk due to GHT in particular. Therefore, we support the consensus that GHT can be considered in survivors after careful individual risk/benefit analysis and in open discussion with the patients and their families, taking into account the known morbidity of untreated GHD in cancer survivors and the positive effects of GHT.
Vera Chesnokova and Shlomo Melmed
Non-pituitary growth hormone (npGH) expression is well established in extrapituitary tissues, but an understanding of the physiological role of npGH remains rather limited. Pro-tumorigenic npGH impacting the tumor microenvironment has been reviewed. We focus here on autocrine/paracrine npGH effects in non-tumorous tissues and discuss its mechanisms of action in the normal tissue microenvironment. We address the tissue-specific effects of npGH in regulating stem, endothelial, immune, and epithelial cells and highlight the related role of npGH-associated changes in tissue aging.
Liang Zhang, Tobias Åkerström, Kazhan Mollazadegan, Felix Beuschlein, Karel Pacak, Britt Skogseid, and Joakim Crona
Core needle biopsy (CNB) has been used with caution in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) due to concerns about catecholamine-related complications. While it is unclear what scientific evidence supports this claim, it has limited the acquisition of biological samples for diagnostic purposes and research, especially in metastatic PPGL. We performed a systematic review and individual patient meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of complications after CNB in PPGL patients. The primary and secondary objectives were to investigate the risk of death and the occurrence of complications requiring intervention or hospitalization, respectively. Fifty-six articles describing 86 PPGL patients undergoing CNB were included. Of the patients (24/71), 34% had metastases and 53.4% (31/58) had catecholamine-related symptoms before CNB. Of the patients (14/41), 34.1% had catecholamine excess testing prior to the biopsy. No CNB-related deaths were reported. Four patients (14.8%, 4/27) experienced CNB-related complications requiring hospitalization or intervention. One case had a temporary duodenal obstruction caused by hematoma, two cases had myocardial infarction, and one case had Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Eight patients (32%, 8/25) had CNB-related catecholamine symptoms, mainly transient hypertension, excessive diaphoresis, tachycardia, or hypertensive crisis. The scientific literature does not allow us to make any firm conclusion on the safety of CNB in PPGL. However, it is reasonable to argue that CNB could be conducted after thorough consideration, preparation, and with close follow-up for PPGL patients with a strong clinical indication for such investigation.
Nicola Viola, Laura Agate, Sonia Caprio, Loredana Lorusso, Alessandro Brancatella, Debora Ricci, Daniele Sgrò, Clara Ugolini, Paolo Piaggi, Paolo Vitti, Rossella Elisei, Ferruccio Santini, and Francesco Latrofa
The relevance of thyroid autoimmunity to the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma is still unsettled. We decided to investigate the impact of thyroid autoimmunity on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and the handling of TgAbs. We evaluated the clinical course of a large group of patients according to the presence (PTC-LT) or absence (PTC) of lymphocytic thyroiditis at histology. We studied 194 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of PTC and treated them with total thyroidectomy plus ¹³¹I ablation between 2007 and 2009. Median follow-up (with 25th–75th percentiles) was 84.0 (56.4–118.0) months. The remission criteria were: basal Tg < 0.2 ng/mL (or stimulated Tg: < 1), TgAbs < 8 IU/mL (otherwise ‘decreasing TgAb trend’, a decline of ≥20% in sequential TgAb measurements) and unremarkable imaging. PTC-LT and PTC patients had comparable treatment.TgAbs were detectable in 72.5% of PTC-LT and 16.5% of PTC patients. Time to remission was longer in the detectable than in the undetectable TgAb cohort (28.5 vs· 7.5 months (median); HR: 0.54, CI: 0.35–0.83, P = 0.005). When comparing PTC-LT to PTC patients, the difference was maintained in the detectable TgAb (29.3 vs 13.0 months; HR: 0.38, CI: 0.18–0.80; P = 0.01) but not in the undetectable TgAb cohort (7.7 vs 7.3 months; HR: 0.90, CI: 0.55–1.47; P = 0.68). Using the decreasing TgAb trend, the influence of detectable TgAbs on time to remission was abolished. Thyroid autoimmunity does not influence the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A decreasing TgAb trend seems an appropriate criterion to establish the remission of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Meilin Zhang, Jian Song, Shigang Guo, Feng Jin, and Ang Zheng
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors have shown advantages in hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDK4/6 inhibitors combined with endocrine therapy (ET) in patients with HR+, HER2- early breast cancer. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to CDK4/6 inhibitors combined with ET. Literature conforming to the research content was identified according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The efficacy endpoints included invasive disease-free survival (IDFS), distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) and overall survival (OS) with adjuvant therapy. The efficacy endpoint of neoadjuvant therapy was complete cell cycle arrest (CCCA). The safety outcomes included the incidence of adverse events (AEs), grade 3–4 hematological and non-hematological AEs. Data analysis was performed using Review Manager software (version 5.3). A statistical model (fixed-effects model or random-effects model) was selected based on the level of heterogeneity, and a sensitivity analysis was performed if strong heterogeneity existed. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the baseline patient characteristics. Nine articles (including six RCTs) were included in the study. In adjuvant therapy, compared with the control group, CDK4/6 inhibitors combined with ET showed no statistically significant difference in IDFS [hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64–1.08, P = 0.17] and DRFS (hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.52–1.31, P = 0.42). In neoadjuvant therapy, CDK4/6 inhibitors combined with ET significantly improved CCCA compared with the control group (odds ratio = 9.00, 95% CI = 5.42–14.96, P < 0.00001). In terms of safety, the combination treatment group had a significantly increased incidence of grade 3–4 hematological AEs in patients, especially grade 3–4 neutropenia [risk ratio (RR) = 63.90, 95% CI = 15.44-264.41, P < 0.00001) and grade 3–4 leukopenia (RR = 85.89, 95% CI = 19.12-385.77, P < 0.00001), with statistically significant differences. In patients with HR+, HER2- early breast cancer, the addition of CDK4/6 inhibitors may prolong IDFS and DRFS in adjuvant therapy, especially in high-risk patients. Further follow-up is needed to establish whether OS can be improved with CDK4/6 inhibitors plus ET. CDK4/6 inhibitors also showed effective anti-tumor proliferation activity in neoadjuvant therapy. Regular monitoring of routine blood tests in patients using CDK4/6 inhibitors is essential.
Jiajun Wu, Juyong Liang, Ruiqi Liu, Tian Lv, Kangyin Fu, Liehao Jiang, Wenli Ma, Yan Pan, Zhuo Tan, Qing Liu, Weihua Qiu, Minghua Ge, and Jiafeng Wang
Anlotinib-mediated angiogenic remodeling was delineated in various tumors. Meanwhile, we previously showed that anlotinib inhibited tumor angiogenesis in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). However, the potential role of anlotinib on cell lethality in ATC remains an enigma. Herein, we found that anlotinib inhibited the viability, proliferation and migration of KHM-5M, C643 and 8505C cells in a dose-dependently manner. Under anlotinib treatment, PANoptosis (pyroptosis, apoptosis and necroptosis) markers were not changed; however, ferroptosis targets (transferrin, HO-1, FTH1, FTL, GPX4) were significantly downregulated. ROS levels also increased in a concentration-dependent manner after anlotinib treatment in KHM-5M, C643 and 8505C cells. In addition, protective autophagy was activated in response to anlotinib, and autophagic blockade potentiated anlotinib-mediated ferroptosis and antitumour effects in vitro and in vivo. Our new discovery identified autophagy-ferroptosis signalling pathway which provides mechanistic insight into anlotinib-mediated cell death, and synergistic combination therapy may help develop new ATC treatment strategies.
Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Gabriela Peña, Gabriel Pazmiño, William Acosta, Jannette Saavedra, Daniela Lescano, Alexandra Guevara, and Antonio W D Gavilanes
Meta-analyses from 2018–2022 have shown that obesity increases the risk of various cancers such as acute myeloid lymphoma, chronic myeloid lymphoma, diffuse beta cell lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, bladder, breast, cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal, ovarian, esophageal, kidney, liver, prostate, thyroid, and uterus. Contextually, obesity, and its comorbidities, is the largest, most lethal pandemics in the history of mankind; hence, identification of underlying mechanisms is needed to adequately address this global health threat. Herein, we present the metabolic and hormonal mechanisms linked to obesity that might etiologically contribute to neoplasia, including hyperinsulinemia and putative places in the insulin-signaling pathway. Excess insulin, acting as a growth factor, might contribute to tumorigenesis, while abundant ATP and GDP supply the additional energy needed for proliferation of rapidly dividing cells. Our observations in the Ecuadorian cohort of subjects with Laron syndrome (ELS) prove that obesity does not always associate with increased cancer risk. Indeed, despite excess body fat from birth to death, these individuals display a diminished incidence of cancer when compared to their age- and sex-matched relatives. Furthermore, in cell cultures exposed to potent oxidizing agents, addition of ELS serum induces less DNA damage as well as increased apoptosis. ELS individuals have absent growth hormone (GH) counter-regulatory effects in carbohydrate metabolism due to a defective GH receptor. The corresponding biochemical phenotype includes extremely low basal serum concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I, lower basal glucose and triglyceride (TG) levels, and diminished glucose, TG, and insulin responses to orally administered glucose or to a mixed meal.