The management of cancer patients has changed due to the considerably more frequent use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs). However, the use of ICPI has a risk of side effects, particularly endocrine toxicity. Since the indications for ICPI are constantly expanding due to their efficacy, it is important that endocrinologists and oncologists know how to look for this type of toxicity and how to treat it when it arises. In view of this, the French Endocrine Society initiated the formulation of a consensus document on ICPI-related endocrine toxicity. In this paper, we will introduce data on the general pathophysiology of endocrine toxicity, and we will then outline expert opinion focusing primarily on methods for screening, management and monitoring for endocrine side effects in patients treated by ICPI. We will then look in turn at endocrinopathies that are induced by ICPI including dysthyroidism, hypophysitis, primary adrenal insufficiency and fulminant diabetes. In each chapter, expert opinion will be given on the diagnosis, management and monitoring for each complication. These expert opinions will also discuss the methodology for categorizing these side effects in oncology using ‘common terminology criteria for adverse events’ (CTCAE) and the difficulties in applying this to endocrine side effects in the case of these anti-cancer therapies. This is shown in particular by certain recommendations that are used for other side effects (high-dose corticosteroids, contraindicated in ICPI for example) and that cannot be considered as appropriate in the management of endocrine toxicity, as it usually does not require ICPI withdrawal or high-dose glucocorticoid intake.
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F Castinetti, F Albarel, F Archambeaud, J Bertherat, B Bouillet, P Buffier, C Briet, B Cariou, Ph Caron, O Chabre, Ph Chanson, C Cortet, C Do Cao, D Drui, M Haissaguerre, S Hescot, F Illouz, E Kuhn, N Lahlou, E Merlen, V Raverot, S Smati, B Verges and F Borson-Chazot
Sung Gwe Ahn, Chang Ik Yoon, Jae Hoon Lee, Hye Sun Lee, So Eun Park, Yoon Jin Cha, Chihwan Cha, Soong June Bae, Kyung-A Lee and Joon Jeong
On the basis of TP53 mutations and standardized uptake values (SUVs) from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET), we sought to enhance our knowledge of the biology underlying low progesterone receptor (PR) expression in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-negative tumors. This study included 272 patients surgically treated for ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer and who had undergone TP53 gene sequencing. Of these, 229 patients also underwent 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT. Mutational analysis of exons 5–9 of the TP53 gene was conducted using PCR amplification and direct sequencing. The SUVs were measured using 18F-FDG-PET scan images. Twenty-eight (10.3%) tumors had a somatic TP53 mutation. The TP53 mutation rate was significantly higher in low-PR tumors than in high-PR tumors (17.1% vs 7.9%, P = 0.039). Low-PR tumors had significantly higher median SUVs than high-PR tumors (P = 0.046). The multivariable analysis revealed that SUV and age remained independent variables associated with low PR expression. An adverse impact of low PR expression on recurrence-free survival was observed in the multivariable Cox regression hazard model. We provide clinical evidence that genetic alteration of the TP53 gene and dysregulated glucose metabolism partly involve low PR expression in ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer.
Charline Dubois, Natacha Rocks, Silvia Blacher, Irina Primac, Anne Gallez, Melissa García-Caballero, Céline Gérard, Laurent Brouchet, Agnès Noël, Françoise Lenfant, Didier Cataldo and Christel Pequeux
Oestrogen signalling pathways are emerging targets for lung cancer therapy. Unravelling the contribution of oestrogens in lung cancer development is a pre-requisite to support the development of sex-based treatments and identify patients who could potentially benefit from anti-oestrogen treatments. In this study, we highlight the contribution of lymphatic and blood endothelia in the sex-dependent modulation of lung cancer. The orthotopic graft of syngeneic lung cancer cells into immunocompetent mice showed that lung tumours grow faster in female mice than in males. Moreover, oestradiol (E2) promoted tumour development, increased lymph/angiogenesis and VEGFA and bFGF levels in lung tumours of females through an oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha-dependent pathway. Furthermore, while treatment with ERb antagonist was inefficient, ERa antagonist (MPP) and tamoxifen decreased lung tumour volumes, altered blood and lymphatic vasculature and reduced VEGFA and bFGF levels in females, but not in males. Finally, the quantification of lymphatic and blood vasculature of lung adenocarcinoma biopsies from patients aged between 35 and 55 years revealed more extensive lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in tumour samples issued from women than from men. In conclusion, our findings highlight an E2/ERa-dependent modulation of lymphatic and blood vascular components of lung tumour microenvironment. Our study has potential clinical implication in a personalised medicine perspective by pointing to the importance of oestrogen status or supplementation on lung cancer development that should be considered to adapt therapeutic strategies.
Kelly Brewer, Jessica Costa-Guda and Andrew Arnold
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by dysregulation of parathyroid hormone release. The large majority of PHPT cases are attributable to sporadic, single-gland parathyroid adenoma, in which MEN1 and CCND1/cyclin D1 are the most well-established drivers of tumorigenesis. Sporadic parathyroid carcinoma, which appears to mostly arise through molecular pathways distinct from those causing benign parathyroid tumors, is rare and is most frequently driven by mutational inactivation of the CDC73 (HRPT2) tumor suppressor gene. Targeted investigation of suspected tumor driver genes, as well as unbiased whole-genome or exome sequencing of small cohorts, have revealed additional novel candidate tumor genes in sporadic parathyroid neoplasia, generally at modest or low mutational frequencies consistent with marked molecular genetic heterogeneity from tumor to tumor. The ability of these additional candidates to participate in the pathogenic process of driving parathyroid tumorigenesis in vivo largely remains to be demonstrated experimentally. This review will summarize the molecular genetic abnormalities identified to date in sporadic PHPT and discuss the strength of evidence for their proposed roles in parathyroid tumor formation.
Martin K Bakht, Iulian Derecichei, Yinan Li, Rosa-Maria Ferraiuolo, Mark Dunning, So Won Oh, Abdulkadir Hussein, Hyewon Youn, Keith F Stringer, Chang Wook Jeong, Gi Jeong Cheon, Cheol Kwak, Keon Wook Kang, Alastair D Lamb, Yuzhuo Wang, Xuesen Dong and Lisa A Porter
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in most prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPC) cells and acts as a target for molecular imaging. However, some case reports indicate that PSMA-targeted imaging could be ineffectual for delineation of neuroendocrine (NE) prostate cancer (NEPC) lesions due to the suppression of the PSMA gene (FOLH1). These same reports suggest that targeting somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) could be an alternative diagnostic target for NEPC patients. This study evaluates the correlation between expression of FOLH1, NEPC marker genes and SSTR2. We evaluated the transcript abundance for FOLH1 and SSTR2 genes as well as NE markers across 909 tumors. A significant suppression of FOLH1 in NEPC patient samples and AdPC samples with high expression of NE marker genes was observed. We also investigated protein alterations of PSMA and SSTR2 in an NE-induced cell line derived by hormone depletion and lineage plasticity by loss of p53. PSMA is suppressed following NE induction and cellular plasticity in p53-deficient NEPC model. The PSMA-suppressed cells have more colony formation ability and resistance to enzalutamide treatment. Conversely, SSTR2 was only elevated following hormone depletion. In 18 NEPC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models we find a significant suppression of FOLH1 and amplification of SSTR2 expression. Due to the observed FOLH1-supressed signature of NEPC, this study cautions on the reliability of using PMSA as a target for molecular imaging of NEPC. The observed elevation of SSTR2 in NEPC supports the possible ability of SSTR2-targeted imaging for follow-up imaging of low PSMA patients and monitoring for NEPC development.
KeeMing Chia, Heloisa Milioli, Neil Portman, Geraldine Laven-Law, Rhiannon Coulson, Aliza Yong, Davendra Segara, Andrew Parker, Catherine E Caldon, Niantao Deng, Alexander Swarbrick, Wayne D Tilley, Theresa E Hickey and Elgene Lim
The role of androgen receptor (AR) in endocrine-resistant breast cancer is controversial and clinical trials targeting AR with an AR antagonist (e.g., enzalutamide) have been initiated. Here, we investigated the consequence of AR antagonism using in vitro and in vivo models of endocrine resistance. AR antagonism in MCF7-derived tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) and long-term estrogen-deprived breast cancer cell lines were achieved using siRNA-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibition with enzalutamide. The efficacy of enzalutamide was further assessed in vivo in an estrogen-independent endocrine-resistant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. Knockdown of AR inhibited the growth of the endocrine-resistant cell line models. Microarray gene expression profiling of the TamR cells following AR knockdown revealed perturbations in proliferative signaling pathways upregulated in endocrine resistance. AR loss also increased some canonical ER signaling events and restored sensitivity of TamR cells to tamoxifen. In contrast, enzalutamide did not recapitulate the effect of AR knockdown in vitro, even though it inhibited canonical AR signaling, which suggests that it is the non-canonical AR activity that facilitated endocrine resistance. Enzalutamide had demonstrable efficacy in inhibiting AR activity in vivo but did not affect the growth of the endocrine-resistant PDX model. Our findings implicate non-canonical AR activity in facilitating an endocrine-resistant phenotype in breast cancer. Unlike canonical AR signaling which is inhibited by enzalutamide, non-canonical AR activity is not effectively antagonized by enzalutamide, and this has important implications in the design of future AR-targeted clinical trials in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.
Esben Andreas Carlsen, Nicola Fazio, Dan Granberg, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Chiara Maria Grana, Wouter T Zandee, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Martin A Walter, Peter Sandor Oturai, Anja Rinke, Andrew Weaver, Andrea Frilling, Sara Gritti, Anne Kirstine Arveschoug, Amichay Meirovitz, Ulrich Knigge and Halfdan Sorbye
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an established treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors grade 1–2 (G1–G2). However, its possible benefit in high-grade gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN G3) is largely unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the benefits and side effects of PRRT in patients with GEP NEN G3. We performed a retrospective cohort study at 12 centers to assess the efficacy and toxicity of PRRT in patients with GEP NEN G3. Outcomes were response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. We included 149 patients (primary tumor: pancreatic n = 89, gastrointestinal n = 34, unknown n = 26). PRRT was first-line (n = 30), second-line (n = 62) or later-line treatment (n = 57). Of 114 patients evaluated, 1% had complete response, 41% partial response, 38% stable disease and 20% progressive disease. Of 104 patients with documented progressive disease before PRRT, disease control rate was 69%. The total cohort had median PFS of 14 months and OS of 29 months. Ki-67 21–54% (n = 125) vs Ki-67 ≥55% (n = 23): PFS 16 vs 6 months (P < 0.001) and OS 31 vs 9 months (P < 0.001). Well (n = 60) vs poorly differentiated NEN (n = 62): PFS 19 vs 8 months (P < 0.001) and OS 44 vs 19 months (P < 0.001). Grade 3–4 hematological or renal toxicity occurred in 17% of patients. This large multicenter cohort of patients with GEP NEN G3 treated with PRRT demonstrates promising response rates, disease control rates, PFS and OS as well as toxicity in patients with mainly progressive disease. Based on these results, PRRT may be considered for patients with GEP NEN G3.
Priscilla A Furth
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists have been proposed as breast cancer preventives. Individuals who carry a mutated copy of BRCA1, DNA repair-associated gene, are at increased risk for development of breast cancer. Published data in the field suggest there could be interactions between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and BRCA1 that could influence the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists for prevention. This review explores these possible interactions between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists and BRCA1 and discusses feasible experimental directions to provide more definitive information on the potential connections.
Xiang Zhang, Ya Hu, Mengyi Wang, Ronghua Zhang, PeiPei Wang, Ming Cui, Zhe Su, Xiang Gao, Quan Liao and Yupei Zhao
Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is a rare endocrine neoplasia that typically has unfavourable outcomes. The contribution of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to the development of malignant and benign parathyroid tumours remains largely unknown. In this study, we explored transcriptomic profiling of lncRNA and mRNA expression in 6 PCa, 6 parathyroid adenoma (PAd) and 4 normal parathyroid (PaN) tissues. In total, 2641 lncRNA transcripts and 2165 mRNA transcripts were differentially expressed between PCa and PAd. Enrichment analysis demonstrated that dysregulated transcripts were involved mainly in the extracellular matrix (ECM)–receptor interaction and energy metabolism pathways. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that ATF3, ID1, FOXM1, EZH2 and MITF may be crucial to parathyroid carcinogenesis. Series test of cluster analysis segregated differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs into several expression profile models, among which the ‘plateau’ profile representing components specific to parathyroid carcinogenesis was selected to build a co-expression network. Seven lncRNAs and three mRNAs were selected for quantitative RT-PCR validation in 16 PCa, 41 PAd and 4 PaN samples. Receiver-operator characteristic curves analysis showed that lncRNA PVT1 and GLIS2-AS1 yielded the area under the curve values of 0.871 and 0.860, respectively. Higher hybridization signals were observed in PCa for PVT1 and PAd for GLIS2-AS1. In conclusion, the current evidence indicates that PAd and PCa partially share common signalling molecules and pathways, but have independent transcriptional events. Differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs have intricate interactions and are involved in parathyroid tumourigenesis. The lncRNA PVT1 and GLIS2-AS1 may be new potential markers for the diagnosis of PCa.
Mimi I Hu, Rossella Elisei, Marek Dedecjus, Aron Popovtzer, Maralyn Druce, Ellen Kapiteijn, Furio Pacini, Laura Locati, Jolanta Krajewska, Richard Weiss and Robert F Gagel
Vandetanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of advanced symptomatic or progressive medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). The current study (Nbib1496313) evaluated the benefit–risk of two starting doses of vandetanib in patients with symptomatic or progressive MTC. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive vandetanib 150 or 300 mg daily and followed for a maximum of 14 months (Part A), with the option to then enter an open-label phase (Part B) investigating vandetanib 100, 150, 200 and 300 mg daily doses. Efficacy was assessed in Part A, and safety and tolerability during Parts A and B up to 2 years post randomization. Eighty-one patients were randomized in Part A and 61 patients entered Part B, of whom 37 (60.7%) received 2 years of treatment. Overall, 25% of patients experienced an objective response (OR) at 14 months (OR rate, 0.29 (95% CI, 0.176–0.445) for 300 mg, and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.105–0.348) for 150 mg; one-sided P value approximately 0.43). The most common adverse events (AEs) included diarrhea, hypocalcemia, asthenia, QTc prolongation, hypokalemia and keratopathy, all at generally higher incidence with 300 vs 150 mg (Part A). Part B safety and tolerability was consistent with Part A. OR was observed with both vandetanib doses; the 300 mg dose showed a more favorable trend vs 150 mg as initial dose. Thus, for most patients, 300 mg vandetanib is the most appropriate starting dose; dose reductions to manage AEs and lower initial doses for patients with particular comorbidities can be considered.