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S G Creemers, P M van Koetsveld, W W De Herder, F Dogan, G J H Franssen, R A Feelders, and L J Hofland

efficacy of chemotherapy in ACC has been associated with the presence of high levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in normal and tumoral adrenal tissue, an enzyme which actively pumps a variety of substrates like chemotherapy out of the cell ( Flynn et al

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Antonino Belfiore and Roberta Malaguarnera

the growth of LB-T cell lymphoma. In contrast, insulin-deficient diabetic mice and mice fed a low energy diet developed complete resistance to lymphoma growth ( Sharon et al . 1993 ). Yet, intraportal transplantation of pancreatic islets into rats

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Elizabeth Grubbs, Daniel Halperin, Steven G Waguespack, and Robert F Gagel

/paraganglioma, pituitary adenomas, and parathyroid tumours. The association of multiple endocrine neoplasms was first recognized after the publication of case reports and small series throughout the first half of the 20th century. However, it was not until the post

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Gavin P Vinson, Stewart Barker, and John R Puddefoot

cortex, kidney, liver and perhaps muscle and connective tissue, angiotensin II regulates cell turnover by promoting both cell proliferation and programmed cell death, perhaps predominantly through differential actions via the AT1 and AT2 receptors ( Linz

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Hiroshi Imaoka, Mitsuhito Sasaki, Hideaki Takahashi, Yusuke Hashimoto, Izumi Ohno, Shuichi Mitsunaga, Kazuo Watanabe, Kumiko Umemoto, Gen Kimura, Yuko Suzuki, and Masafumi Ikeda

Introduction Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are epithelial neoplasms that exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation, and they can arise from neuroendocrine cells, which are distributed widely throughout the body. NENs are relatively rare, with

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Dermot O'Toole, Anne Couvelard, Vinciane Rebours, Magali Zappa, Olivia Hentic, Pascal Hammel, Philippe Levy, Pierre Bedossa, Eric Raymond, and Philippe Ruszniewski

differentiated GEP demonstrate loss of PTEN ( Wang et al . 2002 ), and altered subcellular localization of PTEN has also been reported in islet cell carcinoma ( Perren et al . 2000 ). In this study, cytoplasmic PTEN expression was associated with a response to

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Juan Pablo Petiti, Liliana del Valle Sosa, Florencia Picech, Gabriela Deisi Moyano Crespo, Jean Zander Arevalo Rojas, Pablo Anibal Pérez, Carolina Beatriz Guido, Carolina Leimgruber, María Eugenia Sabatino, Pedro García, Verónica Bengio, Francisco Roque Papalini, Paula Estario, Celina Berhard, Marcos Villarreal, Silvina Gutiérrez, Ana Lucía De Paul, Jorge Humberto Mukdsi, and Alicia Inés Torres

Introduction Pituitary adenomas occur in around 10–15% of all intracranial neoplasms, but only a few of these are symptomatic according to estimations from various clinical studies ( Asa & Ezzat 1998 , Tomita & Gates 1999 , Kaltsas et al

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Alexa Childs, Amy Kirkwood, Julien Edeline, Tu Vinh Luong, Jennifer Watkins, Angela Lamarca, Doraid Alrifai, Phyllis Nsiah-Sarbeng, Roopinder Gillmore, Astrid Mayer, Christina Thirlwell, Debashis Sarker, Juan W Valle, and Tim Meyer

Caplin ME Meyer T 2016 Early changes in circulating tumor cells are associated with response and survival following treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms . Clinical Cancer Research 22 79 – 85 . ( doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15

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Marianne E Pavel and Christine Sers

S Wiese D Waldmann J Lauth M Rexin P L-Lopez C Schlitt HJ Bartsch DK Lang SA 2014 Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 with AUY922 represses tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell neoplasms

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Zoran Erlic, Ursula Ploeckinger, Alberto Cascon, Michael M Hoffmann, Laura von Duecker, Aurelia Winter, Gerit Kammel, Janina Bacher, Maren Sullivan, Berend Isermann, Lars Fischer, Andreas Raffel, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Matthias Schott, Tobias Baumann, Oliver Schaefer, Tobias Keck, Richard P Baum, Ioana Milos, Mihaela Muresan, Mariola Peczkowska, Andrzej Januszewicz, Kenko Cupisti, Anke Tönjes, Mathias Fasshauer, Jan Langrehr, Peter von Wussow, Abbas Agaimy, Günter Schlimok, Regina Lamberts, Thorsten Wiech, Kurt Werner Schmid, Alexander Weber, Mercedes Nunez, Mercedes Robledo, Charis Eng, Hartmut P H Neumann, and for the VHL-ICT Consortium and the German NET Registry

Introduction Islet cell tumors of the pancreas (ICTs) are neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which are classified into three entities: 1) ICT as sporadic tumor; 2) ICT as a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1; Chandrasekharappa et al