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Mona Alharbi, Felipe Zuñiga, Omar Elfeky, Dominic Guanzon, Andrew Lai, Gregory E Rice, Lewis Perrin, John Hooper, and Carlos Salomon

2003 ). Patients initially respond well to these treatments, but the majority relapse within 18 months, often due to chemoresistance ( Foster et al. 2013 ). Such resistance becomes apparent when patients are re-exposed to chemotherapy treatments after

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Johan O Paulsson, Ninni Mu, Ivan Shabo, Na Wang, Jan Zedenius, Catharina Larsson, and C Christofer Juhlin

. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to plot relapse-free survival time among FTC patients with and without TERT aberrancies and log-rank test was used to calculate significance. Relapse-free survival time was defined as number of months before

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Benjamin C Thomas, Jonathan D Kay, Suraj Menon, Sarah L Vowler, Sarah N Dawson, Laura J Bucklow, Hayley J Luxton, Thomas Johnston, Charlie E Massie, Michelle Pugh, Anne Y Warren, Peter Barker, Keith Burling, Andy G Lynch, Anne George, Johanna Burge, Marie Corcoran, Sara Stearn, Alastair D Lamb, Naomi L Sharma, Greg L Shaw, David E Neal, and Hayley C Whitaker

of androgens or their binding to the AR. Although this treatment is effective, patients will eventually relapse as prostate cancer cells continue to grow, despite continued hormone therapy. This stage of disease was originally termed hormone

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N Sarwar, J-S Kim, J Jiang, D Peston, H D Sinnett, P Madden, J M Gee, R I Nicholson, A E Lykkesfeldt, S Shousha, R C Coombes, and S Ali

aromatase inhibitor anastrozole has been shown to give response in around 30% of patients who had developed resistance to tamoxifen ( Buzdar & Howell 2001 ). Similar responses have been achieved following relapse on tamoxifen, with the potent anti

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Tiago Vieira Augusto, Georgina Correia-da-Silva, Cecília M P Rodrigues, Natércia Teixeira, and Cristina Amaral

advanced breast cancer defined the primary resistance as a relapse during the first 2 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy or progression of disease within the first 6 months of first-line endocrine therapy for metastatic breast cancer. Secondary

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Segolene Hescot, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Theophraste Henry, Hala Sheikh-Alard, Livia Lamartina, Isabelle Borget, Julien Hadoux, Eric Baudin, Corinne Dupuy, Alyaksandr V Nikitski, Yuri E Nikiforov, Martin Schlumberger, Marina N Nikiforova, and Sophie Leboulleux

as risk factors for recurrence ( Gnemmi et al. 2014 , Akaishi et al. 2019 ). We also identified on the univariate analysis that age ≥ 55 years, high ATA relapse risk, mitotic count >5/2 mm 2 , high molecular-risk signature and CD163 expression

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Alastair Davies, Amina Zoubeidi, and Luke A Selth

Recruiting relapsed/refractory CRPC; no results reported EZH2 inhibition Tazemetostat II NCT02875548 Ongoing; well tolerated in B-cell lymphoma and advanced solid tumours PF-06821497 I NCT03460977 Recruiting relapsed/refractory CRPC

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Louis W C Chow, Satoshi Morita, Christopher Y C Chow, Wai-Kuen Ng, and Masakazu Toi

relapse or breast cancer death risks. Ki67 proliferation index has been implicated as a surrogate marker of response for neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. A score of 2.7 or less was regarded as complete cell cycle arrest ( Ma et al. 2015 ). The

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Enzo Lalli and Michaela Luconi

in several types of endocrine cancers through a variety of mechanisms ( Lima et al . 2017 ). Metastasis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC): do paradigms apply? ACC is a rare endocrine malignancy with a high risk of relapse and

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Benjamin A Mooso, Ruth L Vinall, Clifford G Tepper, Rosalinda M Savoy, Jean P Cheung, Sheetal Singh, Salma Siddiqui, Yu Wang, Roble G Bedolla, Anthony Martinez, Maria Mudryj, Hsing-Jien Kung, Ralph W deVere White, and Paramita M Ghosh

); however, patients on this treatment eventually relapse, indicative of the development of castration-resistant CaP (CRPC). Although a number of FDA-approved treatments for CRPC are currently available, the condition remains essentially incurable, with high