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I Marinoni, A Wiederkeher, T Wiedmer, S Pantasis, A Di Domenico, R Frank, E Vassella, A Schmitt, and A Perren

islets as ‘high-methylated’, and samples that showed weaker staining than normal islets as ‘low-methylated’. To exclude false-negative samples, only samples with positive nuclear staining of non-neoplastic cells and negative tumor nuclei were scored as

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Philipp Mayer, Andreas Harjung, Marco Breinig, Lars Fischer, Volker Ehemann, Mona Malz, Hans Scherübl, Sarah Britsch, Jens Werner, Michael A Kern, Hendrik Bläker, Peter Schirmacher, and Frank Bergmann

-neoplastic pancreatic tissue samples consisted lobules of predominantly exocrine cells, containing scattered islets. For protein isolation from cell lines, the cell monolayers were washed with PBS (PAA Laboratories, Cölbe, Germany) and lysed (10% Chaps (10×), 0.2% DTT

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Georgios K Dimitriadis, Anna Angelousi, Martin O Weickert, Harpal S Randeva, Gregory Kaltsas, and Ashley Grossman

hormone by tumour cells in vitro PNS can develop during different phases of the evolution of the neoplastic process, with an estimated prevalence of approximately 8% among all malignant neoplasms ( Baijens et al. 2006 ). In some cases, PNS

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Amy Moreno, Argun Akcakanat, Mark F Munsell, Alpana Soni, James C Yao, and Funda Meric-Bernstam

PTEN, 54% of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors demonstrate loss of PTEN expression ( Wang et al . 2002 ). Frequent loss of 10q, the site of the PTEN gene has been reported in sporadic islet cell carcinoma. In addition, altered subcellular

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Alessia Di Florio, Laura Adesso, Simona Pedrotti, Gabriele Capurso, Emanuela Pilozzi, Vincenzo Corbo, Aldo Scarpa, Raffaele Geremia, Gianfranco Delle Fave, and Claudio Sette

PET cell proliferation by suppressing protein synthesis while preventing activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Expression of p-Src and 4E-BP1 in PET samples Our previous study indicated that Src is up-regulated in PET samples compared with normal islet

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Dorota Dworakowska and Ashley B Grossman

frame shift Pancreatic islet cell neoplasm Lichenified hyperpigmented plagues suggesting a paraneoplastic process Merritt et al . (2006)  m Child 12 years TSC2 gene LOH in the tumour and the germ line mutation Q478X in exon 13 of the TSC2 gene on

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Fateme Salehi, Kalman Kovacs, Bernd W Scheithauer, Ricardo V Lloyd, and Michael Cusimano

-transfected cells into nude mice has been shown to induce tumors formation. Overexpression of PTTG reportedly occurs in several neoplasms, including pituitary tumors, as well as carcinomas of lung, breast, esophagus, colon, rectum, and ovary. In colon and thyroid

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Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Kate E Lines, Shani Avniel-Polak, Chas Bountra, and Rajesh V Thakker

gene expression and by interacting with a multitude of proteins with diverse functions. It was suggested that menin may either promote or inhibit Wnt signalling in certain stages of islet tumor development as well as in certain cell types: for example

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Gregory Kaltsas, Ioannis I Androulakis, Wouter W de Herder, and Ashley B Grossman

to be elevated in a variety of NETs, including phaeochromocytomas, paragangliomas, midgut ‘carcinoids’ and pancreatic islet cell tumours (PICT), medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs), parathyroid and pituitary adenomas, and at low levels in small cell

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Eduardo Vilar, Ramón Salazar, Jose Pérez-García, Javier Cortes, Kjell Öberg, and Josep Tabernero

of patients ( Chaudhry et al. 1992 ), as it has been showed in other neoplasms ( Dodd et al. 1997 , Yasui et al. 2006 ). Chemotherapy in PETs PETs, also known as islet cell carcinomas, are rare neoplasms with an