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M Cives, M Ghayouri, B Morse, M Brelsford, M Black, A Rizzo, A Meeker, and J Strosberg

there was nuclear labeling in at least 50% of tumor cells. Non-neoplastic cells (endothelial cells, stromal cells and islets of Langerhans) served as an internal positive control in all tissue sections. Cases lacking positive immunostaining in benign

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Emanuel Christ, Kwadwo Antwi, Melpomeni Fani, and Damian Wild

-protein-coupled receptor family . Only a single GLP-1R is known so far, which is structurally identical in all tissues ( Thorens et al. 1993 ). The GLP-1R is of clinical interest not only due to its physiologic expression and functions in pancreatic islet cells

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Matthias Beyens, Timon Vandamme, Marc Peeters, Guy Van Camp, and Ken Op de Beeck

comparison to normal pancreatic islet cells. Similarly, PTEN expression is lost in 7–29% of pNETs. In another study involving 72 pNETs, PTEN expression levels were lowered or absent in 60% of the samples. TSC2 or PTEN levels in pNETs are of clinical relevance

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Samuel M O’Toole, Anju Sahdev, Satya Bhattacharya, Roger Feakins, Evelien F Gevers, and William M Drake

multifocal and metachronous disease as well as extra-pancreatic VHL-related neoplasms (e.g. clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), phaeochromocytoma and central nervous system haemangioblastoma). Intervention should ideally be timed to eliminate the risk of

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Callum Livingstone

steroidogenesis is a mechanism whereby elevated insulin concentrations that occur during ADT promote prostate cancer progression. Non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia Non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome occurring in

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Teresa M Seccia, Ambrogio Fassina, Gastone G Nussdorfer, Achille C Pessina, and Gian Paolo Rossi

with anastomosing columns and cords of cells (white arrow) and the other islet-like (black arrow). No cell and nuclear pleomorphism, no trabecular pattern, no capsular or vascular invasion, no mitoses and necrosis were evident. The intact capsula (cap

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Françoise Galland, Ludovic Lacroix, Patrick Saulnier, Philippe Dessen, Geri Meduri, Michèle Bernier, Stéphane Gaillard, Jean Guibourdenche, Thierry Fournier, Danièle Evain-Brion, Jean Michel Bidart, and Philippe Chanson

mouse model: Bcl-xL promotes islet tumor cell invasion . PLoS Biology 5 e276 . Dudoit S Fridlyand F Speed T 2002 Comparison of discrimination methods for classification of tumors using DNA microarrays . Journal of the American Statistical

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Annunziata Di Domenico, Tabea Wiedmer, Ilaria Marinoni, and Aurel Perren

somatostatin cell neoplasms and their precursor lesions . Gut 56 637 – 644 . ( doi:10.1136/gut.2006.108910 ) Arnold CN Sosnowski A Schmitt-Graff A Arnold R Blum HE 2007 Analysis of molecular pathways in sporadic neuroendocrine

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Kjell Oberg

, including phaeochromocytomas, paragangliomas, alimentary tract NETs, pancreatic islet cell tumours, medullary thyroid carcinomas, parathyroid and pituitary adenomas and also in a proportion of patients with small-cell lung cancer ( Sobol et al . 1986

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YunFeng Cui and Dana K Andersen

, possibly related to the growth-promoting effects of GLP1 and its analog exendin-4. Matveyenko et al . (2009) described the effects of sitagliptin, a DDP-IV inhibitor, on pancreatic ductal cell proliferation and β-cell mass in the human islet amyloid