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Maria Chiara Zatelli, Giuseppe Fanciulli, Pasqualino Malandrino, Valeria Ramundo, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria Colao, and on behalf of NIKE Group

Human cancer cell lines; n =43 Rapamycin (100 nM) – Meric-Bernstam et al . (2012)  pAKT Human; n =60 Octreotide (30 mg/28 days) + Everolimus (5–10 mg/day) Carcinoid and islet cell NETs Meric-Bernstam et al . (2012 )  PTEN Human; n =36 Temsirolimus

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A Raitila, M Georgitsi, A Karhu, K Tuppurainen, M J Mäkinen, K Birkenkamp-Demtröder, K Salmenkivi, T F Ørntoft, J Arola, V Launonen, P Vahteristo, and L A Aaltonen

affects only ~30% of patients, whereas primary hyperparathyroidism (~95%) and pancreatic islet cell tumors (~40%) are the major clinical manifestations ( Thakker 1998 ). Additionally, in CNC pituitary adenomas are relatively rare (~10% of patients) and the

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T Vandamme, M Beyens, G Boons, A Schepers, K Kamp, K Biermann, P Pauwels, W W De Herder, L J Hofland, M Peeters, G Van Camp, and K Op de Beeck

Introduction Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas (pNENs), originating from the islet cells, are considered rare, although incidence is increasing ( Dasari et al . 2017 ). pNENs can occur as part of genetic syndromes, such as multiple

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A M Schmitt, S Schmid, T Rudolph, M Anlauf, C Prinz, G Klöppel, H Moch, P U Heitz, P Komminoth, and A Perren

glioblastoma tissue and for both CA-9 and GLUT-1 normal liver tissue was used as controls. For all stainings the intensity (negative, weak positivity, strong positivity) as well as the percentage of positive tumor cells was recorded. VHL deletion analysis

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Eva-Maria Duerr, Yusuke Mizukami, Aylwin Ng, Ramnik J Xavier, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Vikram Deshpande, Andrew L Warshaw , Jonathan Glickman, Matthew H Kulke, and Daniel C Chung

, GADD45β , and NR4A2 ) have not previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of PNETs. Two of these, GADD45β and NR4A2 , regulate apoptosis. GADD45β can block apoptosis induced by IL-1β (interleukin-1β) in cultured islet cells ( Larsen et al

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Federico Gatto and Leo J Hofland

was similar to those observed in somatotroph adenomas only in the 17% of cases ( O'Toole et al . 2006 b ). Recently, Grossrubatscher et al . demonstrated the presence of D 2 in well-differentiated NET of different sites and in normal islet cells by

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Anna Karpathakis, Martyn Caplin, and Christina Thirlwell

Moertel et al . (1980) Chemotherapy 84 ORR 63 vs 36% STZ vs F-STZ in islet cell CR 33 vs 12% Moertel et al . (1992) Chemotherapy 105 ORR 69 vs 45% STZ-dox vs STZ-F vs chlorozotocin in islet cell OS 2.2 vs 1.4 years (STZ-dox vs STZ-F) Engstrom et al

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Anela Blažević, Johannes Hofland, Leo J Hofland, Richard A Feelders, and Wouter W de Herder

Introduction Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are rare and mostly slow-growing neoplasms originating from the enterochromaffin (EC) cells of the intestine ( de Herder 2005 , Yao et al . 2008 ). EC cells are chemo- and

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Sunita K Agarwal

of menin alone may not be sufficient for tumorigenesis. Parathyroid-specific Men1 -knockout mice (using parathryroid hormone promoter/PTH-Cre) develop parathyroid hyperplasia and hypercalcemia ( Libutti et al. 2003 ). Pancreatic islet β-cell

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Annemiek Walenkamp, Guillermo Crespo, Felipe Fierro Maya, Reidar Fossmark, Peter Igaz, Anja Rinke, Gianluca Tamagno, Giovanni Vitale, Kjell Öberg, and Tim Meyer

islet cell tumours, higher microvascular density (MVD) and VEGF (VEGFA) expression predict a more favourable prognosis ( Couvelard et al . 2005 ) and this has been called the ‘neuroendocrine paradox’ ( Scoazec 2013 ). Treatment with a neutralising