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Karin Jennbacken, Tajana Tešan, Wanzhong Wang, Heléne Gustavsson, Jan-Erik Damber, and Karin Welén

initially successful, resulting in reduced tumor burden that could last for several months or even years. However, eventually an AI tumor (i.e. castration-resistant tumor) with an aggressive and metastatic phenotype relapses. Today, treatment in the

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Daniel E Johnson

currently undergoing Phase I clinical testing in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, refractory lymphoma, and advanced solid tumor malignancies. In addition, marizomib in combination with vorinostat is being evaluated in a trial incorporating NSCLC

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S Tozlu, I Girault, S Vacher, J Vendrell, C Andrieu, F Spyratos, P Cohen, R Lidereau, and I Bieche

(tamoxifen, 20 mg daily for 3–5 years), and no other treatment. The median follow-up was 7.3 years (range 3.2–12.5 years). Twelve of the 24 ERα-positive breast tumor patients relapsed. The tumor samples were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen and

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Juan Díaz-Martín, María Ángeles López-García, Laura Romero-Pérez, María Reina Atienza-Amores, María Luisa Pecero, María Ángeles Castilla, Michele Biscuola, Almudena Santón, and José Palacios

-cancer-specific survival was defined as the time from surgery to the time of death from breast cancer, with deaths from other causes being censored, whereas in the time to relapse analysis, the endpoint was breast cancer recurrence, either local or distant. Survival curves

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Julia Hoefer, Johann Kern, Philipp Ofer, Iris E Eder, Georg Schäfer, Dimo Dietrich, Glen Kristiansen, Stephan Geley, Johannes Rainer, Eberhard Gunsilius, Helmut Klocker, Zoran Culig, and Martin Puhr

Pearson's method. Differences in relapse-free survival, defined as biochemical recurrence, were assessed using the Kaplan–Meier plots and log-rank test. Differences were considered statistically significant when P was <0.05. Results SOCS2 expression

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Lesley-Ann Martin, Ian Farmer, Stephen R D Johnston, Simak Ali, and Mitch Dowsett

the majority of women eventually relapse whilst maintaining functional steroid receptors. Cross-talk between the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and ER signal transduction pathways may contribute to acquired endocrine resistance by sensitising breast

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Carmela Ricciardelli

relapse in a cohort of early stage breast cancer ( Ricciardelli et al . 2002 ). These studies suggested that regulating stromal cell secretion of versican into the peritumoural stromal matrix could be an important factor in cancer progression. Studies

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Takeshi Sasaki, Takehisa Onishi, and Akira Hoshina

of PSA progression with metastatic PC patients ( Morote et al . 2004 ). Hori et al . (2011) have reported that PSA nadir <1 ng/ml and TTN >12 months associated with low risk of biochemical relapse in BM patients, and PSA nadir <0.1 ng/ml and TTN

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S Crnalic, E Hörnberg, P Wikström, U H Lerner, Å Tieva, O Svensson, A Widmark, and A Bergh

. This therapy initially reduces symptoms and metastases growth, but after some time, the metastases relapse to castration-resistant growth ( Denmeade & Isaacs 2002 ). The mechanisms regulating growth of PC bone metastases as well as the mechanisms behind

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Ben C Whitelaw

hypersecretion and/or frail patients with co-morbidity. What is the relapse rate? Despite a good initial response to temozolomide therapy some case series have demonstrated a high relapse rate ( Losa et al. 2016 ). For example 10/22 cases show relapse