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Yushan Mao and Mingzhao Xing

Abstract

The incidence rate of thyroid cancer has been rising rapidly in recent decades; however, its trend remains unclear. To investigate this, we analyzed the database of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 13, 1992–2012 in the USA, particularly focusing on conventional papillary thyroid cancer (CPTC) and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC). Of the 75,992 thyroid cancers, 61.3% were CPTC and 25.7% were FVPTC, and their incidence rates (IRs) were significantly increased from 1992 to 2012 (P all < 0.001), with CPTC being 2.4 times of FVPTC (P < 0.001) and the overall average annual percent change (AAPC) of incidence being 6.3% in the former and 5.3% in the latter. IRs were increased in all thyroid cancers, albeit most dramatically in PTC, in virtually all ethnic/demographic groups in recent two decades; however, the incidence trends varied among different thyroid cancers, particularly differentiable between CPTC and FVPTC. For example, Joinpoint analyses revealed that the APC of CPTC before 1996 was 1.5% (P > 0.05), which jumped to 6.8% (P < 0.05) after 1996, whereas the APC of FVPTC before 2000 was 6.6% (P < 0.05), which dropped to 4.8% (P < 0.05) after 2000. IRs and incidence trends of PTC were uneven among different ethnic/demographic groups, as exemplified by the lower IRs of both PTC variants in the Black females than in non-Hispanic White females but higher AAPCs of incidence in the former than in the latter. Interestingly, the data also suggest that the rise in the IRs of PTC is becoming plateaued in the most recent 2 years. These novel observations are helpful in understanding the incidence and incidence trends of thyroid cancer.

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D Deandreis, A Al Ghuzlan, S Leboulleux, L Lacroix, J P Garsi, M Talbot, J Lumbroso, E Baudin, B Caillou, J M Bidart, and M Schlumberger

The aim of this study is to search for relationships between histology, radioiodine (131I) uptake, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, and disease outcome in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer. Eighty patients with metastatic thyroid cancer (34 males, 46 females, mean age at the time of the diagnosis of metastases: 55 years) were retrospectively studied. All patients were treated with radioactive iodine and evaluated by FDG-positron emission tomography (PET). Primary tumor tissue sample was available in all cases. Forty-five patients (56%) had a papillary, 12 (15%) a follicular, and 23 (29%) a poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. Cellular atypias, necrosis, mitoses, thyroid capsule infiltration, and vascular invasion were frequently detected (70, 44, 52, 60, and 71% respectively). Metastases disclosed FDG uptake in 58 patients (72%) and 131I uptake in 37 patients (45%). FDG uptake was the only significant prognostic factor for survival (P=0.02). The maximum standardized uptake value and the number of FDG avid lesions were also related to prognosis (P=0.03 and 0.009). Age at the time of the diagnosis of metastases (P=0.001) and the presence of necrosis (P=0.002) were independent predictive factors of FDG uptake. Radioiodine uptake was prognostic for stable disease (P=0.001) and necrosis for progressive disease at 1 year (P=0.001). Histological subtype was not correlated with in vivo tumor metabolism and prognosis. In conclusion, FDG uptake in metastatic thyroid cancer is highly prognostic for survival. Histological subtype alone does not correlate with 131I/FDG uptake pattern and patient outcome. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer presenting histological features such as necrosis and FDG uptake on PET scan should be considered aggressive differentiated cancers.

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J Lado-Abeal, R Celestino, S B Bravo, M E R Garcia-Rendueles, J de la Calzada, I Castro, P Castro, C Espadinha, F Palos, P Soares, C V Alvarez, M Sobrinho-Simões, and J Cameselle-Teijeiro

Our main objective was to search for mutations in candidate genes and for paired box gene 8–peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PAX8–PPARγ) rearrangement in a well-differentiated angioinvasive follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) causing hyperthyroidism. DNA and RNA were extracted from the patient's thyroid tumor, as well as ‘normal’ thyroid tissue, and from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of the patient, her daughter, and two siblings. Nuclear isolation was extracted from the patient's tumor, ’normal’ thyroid tissue, PBLs, and uterine leiomyoma tissue. TSH receptor (TSHR), RAS, and BRAF genes were sequenced. We searched for PAX8 PPAR γ in thyroid, PBL, and uterine leiomyoma samples from the patient and family members. Proliferative effects of detected mutants on non-transformed human thyrocytes cultures. An activating TSHR mutation, M453T, was detected in the tumor. PAX8 (exons 1 8 + 10) PPAR γ was found in all tested patient's tissues. A second rearrangement, PAX8 (exons 1 8) PPAR γ, was detected in the patient's normal thyroid tissue. Under deprived medium condition, co-transfection of PAX8 PPAR γ and TSHR M453T dramatically increased the number of thyrocytes, an effect that it was not observed with TSHR wild-type (WT); under complete medium conditions, co-transfection of PAX8 PPAR γ with either TSHR M453T or TSHR WT inhibited cell proliferation. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to a FTC bearing an activating TSHR mutation and PAX8 PPAR γ rearrangements. PAX8 PPAR γ was present as a mosaicism affecting tissues from endodermal and mesodermal origin. PAX8 PPAR γ and TSHR M453T inhibited or promoted thyrocyte proliferation depending on medium conditions. The activating TSHR mutation could promote in vivo FTC development in PAX8 PPAR γ-positive thyrocytes under poor blood supply with deprivation of growth factors but restraint the tumor growth when growth factors are supplied.

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Kirk Jensen, Athanasios Bikas, Aneeta Patel, Yevgeniya Kushchayeva, John Costello, Dennis McDaniel, Kenneth Burman, and Vasyl Vasko

The HIV protease inhibitor Nelfinavir (NFV) inhibits PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, emerging targets in thyroid cancers. We examined the effects of NFV on cancer cells that derived from follicular (FTC), papillary (PTC) and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid cancers. NFV (1–20 µM) was tested in FTC133, BCPAP and SW1736 cell lines. The effects of NFV on cell proliferation were determined in vitro using real-time microscopy and by flow cytometry. DNA damage, apoptotic cell death and expression of molecular markers of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) were determined by Western blot and real-time PCR. Real-time imaging demonstrated that NFV (10 µM) increased the time required for the cell passage through the phases of cell cycle and induced DNA fragmentation. Growth inhibitory effects of NFV were associated with the accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase, downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). NFV also induced the expression of γH2AX and p53BP1 indicating DNA damage. Treatment with NFV (20 µM) resulted in caspase-3 cleavage in all examined cells. NFV (20 µM) decreased the levels of total and p-AKT in PTEN-deficient FTC133 cells. NFV had no significant effects on total ERK and p-ERK in BRAF-positive BCPAP and SW1736 cells. NFV had no effects on the expression of EMT markers (Twist, Vimentin, E- and N-Cadherin), but inhibited the migration and decreased the abilities of thyroid cancer cells to survive in non-adherent conditions. We conclude that NFV inhibits proliferation and induces DNA damage in thyroid cancer cell lines. Our in vitro data suggest that NFV has a potential to become a new thyroid cancer therapeutic agent.

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Gennaro Chiappetta, Carmela De Marco, Alfina Quintiero, Daniela Califano, Simona Gherardi, Donatella Malanga, Marianna Scrima, Cristina Montero-Conde, Letizia Cito, Mario Monaco, Maria Letizia Motti, Rosa Pasquinelli, Valter Agosti, Mercedes Robledo, Alfredo Fusco, and Giuseppe Viglietto

Loss of expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 through enhanced protein degradation frequently occurs in human cancer. Degradation of p27 requires ubiquitination by the S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), a member of the F-box family of Skp1–Cullin–F-box protein ubiquitin ligases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of Skp2 in human thyroid tumours. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that Skp2 was overexpressed significantly in thyroid carcinomas (26 out of 51) compared with goitres (0 out of 12, P<0.001) or adenomas (1 out of 10, P<0.05), and that high Skp2 expression was detected more often in anaplastic thyroid (ATC; 83%, n=12) than follicular thyroid (FTC; 40%, n=20) or papillary thyroid (PTC; 42%, n=19) carcinomas (P<0.05). Thyroid cancer cell lines and tissues with high levels of Skp2 protein presented high p27 degradation activity and there was an inverse correlation between Skp2 and p27 expression in thyroid cancer tissues (n=68; P<0.05). In most cases, the observed overexpression of Skp2 protein was paralleled by an increase in the levels of Skp2 mRNA, and we observed Skp2 gene amplification at 5p13 in 2 out of 6 cell lines and in 9 out of 23 primary tumours (six out of eight ATCs, two out of nine PTCs and one out of six FTCs) using Q-PCR and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Finally, in vitro experiments demonstrated that suppression of Skp2 expression drastically reduced proliferation of thyroid cancer cells and, conversely, forced expression of Skp2 circumvented serum dependency and contact inhibition in Skp2-negative cells by promoting p27 degradation. These findings indicate that Skp2 plays an important role for the development of thyroid cancer.

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Iñigo Landa, Cristina Montero-Conde, Donatella Malanga, Silvia De Gisi, Guillermo Pita, Luis-Javier Leandro-García, Lucía Inglada-Pérez, Rocío Letón, Carmela De Marco, Cristina Rodríguez-Antona, Giuseppe Viglietto, and Mercedes Robledo

The aim of this study is to assess if common genetic variants located in the CDKN1B locus, coding for the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, are involved in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Based on the literature and functional predictions, we selected three polymorphisms within the CDKN1B gene (rs2066827 (T326G, V109G), rs34330 (−79C>T) and rs36228499 (−838C>A)) to perform the first case–control study in thyroid cancer involving this locus. We had 649 Spanish patients with sporadic thyroid cancer and 385 healthy representative controls available. Luciferase reporter gene assays, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblot experiments were carried out to demonstrate the putative effect of the associated variant. The polymorphism rs34330 (−79C>T) was identified as a risk factor for developing the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), fitting a recessive model (odds ratio=2.12; 95% confidence interval=1.09–4.15; P value=0.023). The risk allele (T) of this single nucleotide polymorphism led to a lower transcription rate in cells transfected with a luciferase reporter driven by the polymorphic p27Kip1 promoter (P value <0.001). This effect was observed in −79TT genotype control carriers, who showed a tendency towards lower CDKN1B mRNA levels in lymphocytes, as well as at the protein level. This is the first study that identifies CDKN1B as a low-penetrance gene in thyroid cancer, and specifically in FVPTC subtype. We propose a reduced CDKN1B gene transcription depending on the genotype of the −79C>T (rs34330) variant as a novel mechanism underlying p27Kip1 downregulation.

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Tae Hyuk Kim, Young-Eun Kim, Soomin Ahn, Ji-Youn Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Young Lyun Oh, Kyunga Kim, Jae Won Yun, Woong-Yang Park, Jun-Ho Choe, Jung-Han Kim, Jee Soo Kim, Sun Wook Kim, and Jae Hoon Chung

TERT promoter mutations are emerging prognostic biomarkers in multiple cancers and are found in highly aggressive thyroid cancer. Our aim is to investigate the prognostic value of these mutations for the outcome of thyroid cancer-related mortality in a large cohort of thyroid cancer patients. This was a retrospective study of 409 patients (393 with differentiated thyroid cancer) with a median age of 44 years (range 16–81 years) and median follow-up of 13 years (interquartile range 11–16 years). Analyses of associations between mutational status and various clinicopathological variables were performed. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 32 (9.8%) papillary, 11 (16.7%) follicular and seven (43.8%) poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid cancer patients. The presence of TERT promoter mutations was associated with factors such as increased age (P < 0.001), extrathyroidal invasion (P = 0.01), increased stage at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and dedifferentiated histological type (P = 0.001). A TERT promoter mutation was independently associated with poorer overall survival in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (10-year survival rate, 66.2% vs 98.3% for wild type; adjusted HR, 7.18; 95% CI: 2.77–18.59) and in patients with papillary cancer (74.2% vs 99.3%; 14.20; 3.03–66.68). Concomitant TERT and BRAF mutations worsened the survival rate of patients with papillary cancer (82.6% vs 99.4% for exclusively BRAF mutation alone; 5.62; 1.85–17.09). In conclusion, the presence of TERT promoter mutations is independently associated with increased mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The results suggest that inclusion of TERT promoter mutation analysis with conventional clinicopathological evaluation can lead to better prognostication and management for individual patients.

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Alessandro Antonelli, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Frascerra, Simona Piaggi, Stefania Gelmini, Cristiana Lupi, Michele Minuto, Piero Berti, Salvatore Benvenga, Fulvio Basolo, Claudio Orlando, and Paolo Miccoli

In papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), oncogenes activate a transcriptional program including the upregulation of CXCL10 chemokine, which stimulates proliferation and invasion. Furthermore, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activators thiazolidinediones (TZDs) modulate CXCL10 secretion in normal thyroid follicular cells (TFC), and inhibit PTC growth. Until now, no study has evaluated the effect of cytokines on CXCL10 secretion in PTCs, nor the effect of PPARγ activation. The combined effects of interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) stimulation on CXCL10 secretion in primary cells from PTCs and TFC were tested. Furthermore, the effect of PPARγ activation by TZDs, on CXCL10 secretion and proliferation in these cell types was studied. In primary cultures of TFC and PTCs CXCL10 production was absent under basal conditions; a similar dose-dependent secretion of CXCL10 was induced by IFNγ in both cell types. TNFα alone induced a slight but significant CXCL10 secretion only in PTCs. The stimulation with IFNγ+TNFα induced a synergistic CXCL10 release in both cell types; however, a secretion more than ten times higher was induced in PTCs. Treatment of TFC with TZDs dose-dependently suppressed IFNγ+TNFα-induced CXCL10 release, while TZDs stimulated CXCL10 secretion in PTCs. A significant antiproliferative effect by TZDs was observed only in PTCs. In conclusion, a dysregulation of CXCL10 secretion has been shown in PTCs. In fact, a CXCL10 secretion more than ten times higher has been induced by IFNγ+TNFα in PTCs with respect to TFC. Moreover, TZDs inhibited CXCL10 secretion in TFC and stimulated it in PTCs. The effect of TZDs on CXCL10 was unrelated to the significant antiproliferative effect in PTCs.

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Dara O Kavanagh, Marie McIlroy, Eddie Myers, Fiona Bane, Thomas B Crotty, E McDermott, Arnold D Hill, and Leonie S Young

Epidemiological, clinical, and molecular studies suggest a role for oestrogen in thyroid cancer. How oestrogen mediates its effects and the consequence of it on clinical outcome has not been fully elucidated. The participation of coregulatory proteins in modulating oestrogen receptor (ER) function and input of crosstalk with the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 was investigated. Oestrogen induced cell proliferation in the follicular thyroid cancer (FTC)-133 cells, but not in the anaplastic 8305C cell line. Knockdown of the coactivator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 inhibited FTC-133 basal, but not oestrogen induced, cell proliferation. Oestrogen also increased protein expression of SRC-1 and the ER target gene cyclin D1 in the FTC-133 cell line. ERα, ERβ, the coregulatory proteins SRC-1 and nuclear corepressor (NCoR), and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 were localised by immunohistochemistry and immnofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue from thyroid tumour patients (n=111). ERα was colocalised with both SRC-1 and NCoR to the nuclei of the tumour epithelial cells. Expression of ERα and NCoR was found predominantly in non-anaplastic tumours and was significantly associated with well-differentiated tumours and reduced incidence of disease recurrence. In non-anaplastic tumours, HER2 was significantly associated with SRC-1, and these proteins were associated with poorly differentiated tumours, capsular invasion and disease recurrence. Totally, 87% of anaplastic tumours were positive for SRC-1. Kaplan–Meier estimates of disease-free survival indicated that in thyroid cancer, SRC-1 strongly correlates with reduced disease-free survival (P<0.001), whereas NCoR predicted increased survival (P<0.001). These data suggest opposing roles for the coregulators SRC-1 and NCoR in thyroid tumour progression.

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Kyoungjune Pak, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Sang Soo Kim, and Yun Kyung Jeon

The incidence of thyroid cancer in both men and women is increasing faster than that of any other cancer. Although positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has received much attention, the use of FDG PET for the management of thyroid cancer is limited primarily to postoperative follow-up. However, it might have a role in selected, more aggressive pathologies, and so patients at a high risk of distant metastasis may benefit from PET before surgery. As less FDG-avid thyroid cancers may lower the diagnostic accuracy of PET in preoperative assessment, an understanding of FDG avidity is important for the evaluation of thyroid cancer. FDG avidity has been shown to be associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and glucose transporter expression and differentiation. As PET is commonly used in clinical practice, the detection of incidentalomas by PET is increasing. However, incidentalomas detected by PET have a high risk of malignancy. Clinicians handling cytologically indeterminate nodules face a dilemma regarding a procedure for a definitive diagnosis, usually lobectomy. With ‘nondiagnostic (ND)’ fine-needle biopsy (FNA), PET has shown a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%, which indicates that negative uptake in a ND FNA procedure accurately excludes malignancy. With ‘atypia of undetermined significance’ or ‘follicular neoplasm’, the sensitivity and NPV of PET are 84 and 88%. PET does not provide additional information for the preoperative assessment of thyroid cancer. However, factors associated with FDG positivity are related to a poor prognosis; therefore, FDG PET scans before surgery may facilitate the prediction of the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer.