Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) enables detection and localization of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Even small tumours down to a diameter of 1–2 mm can be visualized. Since such small tumours usually cannot be detected by computed tomography (ct), magnetic resonance imaging (mri) and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (srs), and experience with EUS imaging is limited, there is no clear evidence for clinical management in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Knowledge about the natural course of growth and metastatic distribution is mandatory to come to appropriate clinical decisions and guidelines. This prospective study was aimed to assess the natural course of small (<15 mm) neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours without clinical symptoms due to endocrine activity or mechanical problems and without clear indication for surgical therapy in MEN1 by EUS.
A total of 82 asymptomatic tumours <15 mm (5.9 ± 3.2 mm diameter at baseline) in 20 patients with MEN1-disease (8 female/12 male, 43 ± 13 years) were studied over a period of 20 ± 12 months (33.8 patient years, 106.7 tumour years) by EUS. Change in largest diameter of each tumour and annual tumour incidence rate in the patients’ cohort were calculated.
Increase of largest tumour diameter was found to be 1.3 ± 3.2% per month, annual tumour incidence rate 0.62 new tumours per patient year. In one patient, rapid progressive pancreatic manifestation of MEN1 was observed. There was no evidence in ct and/or srs and/or mri for metastatic disease in all patients. Only 4/84 (4.8%) pancreatic tumours could be visualized by computed tomography, 5/79 (6.3%) by somatostatin receptor imaging and 4/39 (10.3%) by magnetic resonance imaging.
Small asymptomatic neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours in MEN1 usually seem to grow slowly. Annual tumour incidence rate is low. However, faster growing tumours and patients with rapidly progressive disease can be observed. Risk for obvious metastatic disease from asymptomatic neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours <15 mm in MEN1 seems to be low.