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Graeme B Bolger, Mariana F Bizzi, Sergio V Pinheiro, Giampaolo Trivellin, Lisa Smoot, Mary-Ann Accavitti, Márta Korbonits, and Antonio Ribeiro-Oliveira Jr

PDE4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases regulate cAMP abundance in cells and therefore regulate numerous processes, including cell growth and differentiation. The rat PDE4A5 isoform (human homolog PDE4A4) interacts with the AIP protein (also called XAP2 or ARA-9). Germline mutations in AIP occur in approximately 20% of patients with Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma (FIPA) and 20% of childhood-onset simplex somatotroph adenomas. We therefore examined the protein expression of PDE4A4 and the closely related isoform PDE4A8 in normal human pituitary tissue and in pituitary adenomas. PDE4A4 had low expression in normal pituitary but was significantly overexpressed in somatotroph, lactotroph, corticotroph and clinically nonfunctioning gonadotroph adenomas (P<0.0001 for all subtypes). Likewise, PDE4A8 was expressed in normal pituitary and was also significantly overexpressed in the adenoma subtypes (P<0.0001 for all). Among the different adenoma subtypes, corticotroph and lactotroph adenomas were the highest and lowest expressed for PDE4A4, respectively, whereas the opposite was observed for PDE4A8. Naturally occurring oncogenic variants in AIP were shown by a two-hybrid assay to disrupt the ability of AIP to interact with PDE4A5. A reverse two-hybrid screen identified numerous additional variants in the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) region of AIP that also disrupted its ability to interact with PDE4A5. The expression of PDE4A4 and PDE4A8 in normal pituitary, their increased expression in adenomatous pituitary cells where AIP is meant to participate, and the disruption of the PDE4A4–AIP interaction by AIP mutants may play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis.

Free access

Ines Donangelo, Song-Guang Ren, Tamar Eigler, Clive Svendsen, and Shlomo Melmed

The role of tumor stem cells in benign tumors such as pituitary adenomas remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the cells within pituitary adenomas that spontaneously develop in Rb + /− mice are hierarchically distributed with a subset being responsible for tumor growth. Cells derived directly from such tumors grew as spheres in serum-free culture medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Some cells within growing pituitary tumor spheres (PTS) expressed common stem cell markers (Sca1, Sox2, Nestin, and CD133), but were devoid of hormone-positive differentiated cells. Under subsequent differentiating conditions (matrigel-coated growth surface), PTS expressed all six pituitary hormones. We next searched for specific markers of the stem cell population and isolated a Sca1+ cell population that showed increased sphere formation potential, lower mRNA hormone expression, higher expression of stem cell markers (Notch1, Sox2, and Nestin), and increased proliferation rates. When transplanted into non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency gamma mice brains, Sca1+ pituitary tumor cells exhibited higher rates of tumor formation (brain tumors observed in 11/11 (100%) vs 7/12 (54%) of mice transplanted with Sca1+ and Sca1 cells respectively). Magnetic resonance imaging and histological analysis of brain tumors showed that tumors derived from Sca1+ pituitary tumor cells were also larger and plurihormonal. Our findings show that Sca1+ cells derived from benign pituitary tumors exhibit an undifferentiated expression profile and tumor-proliferative advantages, and we propose that they could represent putative pituitary tumor stem/progenitor cells.

Free access

W E Farrell

Pituitary tumours are common intracranial neoplasms that cause significant morbidity through mass effects and/or the inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones. Despite a considerable literature detailing potential pathogenic changes in these tumours, their aetiology remains largely unresolved. Recent studies have employed genome-wide profiling towards the identification of novel genes and pathways that are inappropriately expressed or regulated in this tumour type. The techniques employed vary in their complexity and interpretation; however, many of the findings from these types of studies have identified novel genes with potential and, in some cases, proven roles in pituitary tumorigenesis. These studies include comparative genomic hybridization, whole genome-wide allelotyping and methodologies for identification of novel genes associated with epigenetic silencing. In addition, differential display methodologies have been instrumental in the identification of transcripts inappropriately expressed including, pituitary tumour transforming gene, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein (GADD)45γ and a maternal expressed gene 3 isoform, which in some cases have proven roles in pituitary tumorigenesis. Although few studies of whole genome transcript analysis, as determined by microarray or gene-chip technologies, are reported, these studies of human pituitary, in some cases combined with proteomics, are yielding useful data. In addition, these types of investigation have been applied to several animal models of pituitary tumorigenesis, and in these cases novel genes are highlighted as showing significant change. The identification of the initiating events responsible for the transformation of a normal pituitary cell into one with unrestrained proliferative capacity has so far eluded us. No doubt, these new technologies allowing an essentially unbiased genome-wide analysis, perhaps in combination with animal models that display a preceding hyperplasia, will allow us to identify genes critical to tumour evolution and progression.

Free access

B Shan, J Gerez, M Haedo, M Fuertes, M Theodoropoulou, M Buchfelder, M Losa, G K Stalla, E Arzt, and U Renner

The recently cloned small RWD-domain containing protein RSUME was shown to increase protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The latter is the oxygen-regulated subunit of HIF-1, the most important transcription factor of the cellular adaptive processes to hypoxic conditions. It is also a major regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), which is critically involved in the complex process of tumour neovascularisation. In this study, the expression and role of RSUME in pituitary tumours was studied. We found that RSUME mRNA was up-regulated in pituitary adenomas and significantly correlated with HIF-1α mRNA levels. Hypoxia (1% O2) or treatment with hypoxia-mimicking CoCl2 enhanced RSUME and HIF-1α expression, induced translocation of HIF-1α to the nuclei and stimulated VEGF-A production both in pituitary tumour cell lines and primary human pituitary adenoma cell cultures. When RSUME expression was specifically down-regulated by siRNA, the CoCl2-induced increase VEGF-A secretion was strongly reduced which was shown to be a consequence of the RSUME knockdown-associated reduction of HIF-1α synthesis. Thus, RSUME plays an important role in initiating pituitary tumour neovascularisation through regulating HIF-1α levels and subsequent VEGF-A production and may therefore be critically involved in pituitary adenoma progression.

Free access

Päivi Järvensivu, Taija Heinosalo, Janne Hakkarainen, Pauliina Kronqvist, Niina Saarinen, and Matti Poutanen

Hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD17B1) converts low-active estrogen estrone to highly active estradiol. Estradiol is necessary for normal postpubertal mammary gland development; however, elevated estradiol levels increase mammary tumorigenesis. To investigate the significance of the human HSD17B1 enzyme in the mammary gland, transgenic mice universally overexpressing human HSD17B1 were used (HSD17B1TG mice). Mammary glands obtained from HSD17B1TG females at different ages were investigated for morphology and histology, and HSD17B1 activity and estrogen receptor activation in mammary gland tissue were assessed. To study the significance of HSD17B1 enzyme expression locally in mammary gland tissue, HSD17B1-expressing mammary epithelium was transplanted into cleared mammary fat pads of wild-type females, and the effects on mammary gland estradiol production, epithelial cells and the myoepithelium were investigated. HSD17B1TG females showed increased estrone to estradiol conversion and estrogen-response element-driven estrogen receptor signaling in mammary gland tissue, and they showed extensive lobuloalveolar development that was further enhanced by age along with an increase in serum prolactin concentrations. At old age, HSD17B1TG females developed mammary cancers. Mammary-restricted HSD17B1 expression induced lesions at the sites of ducts and alveoli, accompanied by peri- and intraductal inflammation and disruption of the myoepithelial cell layer. The lesions were shown to be estrogen dependent, as treatment with an antiestrogen, ICI 182,780, starting when lesions were already established reversed the phenotype. These data elucidate the ability of human HSD17B1 to enhance estrogen action in the mammary gland in vivo and indicate that HSD17B1 is a factor inducing phenotypic alterations associated with mammary tumorigenesis.

Free access

Gerard A Tarulli, Lisa M Butler, Wayne D Tilley, and Theresa E Hickey

While it has been known for decades that androgen hormones influence normal breast development and breast carcinogenesis, the underlying mechanisms have only been recently elucidated. To date, most studies have focused on androgen action in breast cancer cell lines, yet these studies represent artificial systems that often do not faithfully replicate/recapitulate the cellular, molecular and hormonal environments of breast tumours in vivo. It is critical to have a better understanding of how androgens act in the normal mammary gland as well as in in vivo systems that maintain a relevant tumour microenvironment to gain insights into the role of androgens in the modulation of breast cancer development. This in turn will facilitate application of androgen-modulation therapy in breast cancer. This is particularly relevant as current clinical trials focus on inhibiting androgen action as breast cancer therapy but, depending on the steroid receptor profile of the tumour, certain individuals may be better served by selectively stimulating androgen action. Androgen receptor (AR) protein is primarily expressed by the hormone-sensing compartment of normal breast epithelium, commonly referred to as oestrogen receptor alpha (ERa (ESR1))-positive breast epithelial cells, which also express progesterone receptors (PRs) and prolactin receptors and exert powerful developmental influences on adjacent breast epithelial cells. Recent lineage-tracing studies, particularly those focussed on NOTCH signalling, and genetic analysis of cancer risk in the normal breast highlight how signalling via the hormone-sensing compartment can influence normal breast development and breast cancer susceptibility. This provides an impetus to focus on the relationship between androgens, AR and NOTCH signalling and the crosstalk between ERa and PR signalling in the hormone-sensing component of breast epithelium in order to unravel the mechanisms behind the ability of androgens to modulate breast cancer initiation and growth.

Free access

Gy Liszka, I Számel, I Pete, Á Petrányi, N Udvarhelyi, and B Budai

Abstract

The mammographic appearance of the female breast is influenced by physiological changes related to normal ageing (menopause), endocrine dysfunction, or the combined effects of these factors. During the period from 1 October 1995 to 30 November 1996, mammographic screening was performed on 2356 females from a Budapest district and multiple benign breast lesions (MBBL) were diagnosed in 211 (8.94%) subjects. The hormonal background of this lesion was explored by measuring serum sex hormone levels (oestradiol (E2), progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, FSH and LH) on 40 subjects randomly selected from both Group A (women with involutional changes only) and Group B (patients with MBBL). Serum E2 levels were considerably, but not statistically significantly higher in patients with MBBL (102.2±40.2 vs 50.8±18.7 pmol/l), whereas the elevations of serum progesterone (2.29±0.4 vs 0.901±0.5 nmol/l, P=0.0325) and LH (64.3±9.4 vs 48.9±13.9 IU/l, P=0.0194) levels were statistically significant.

In patients with MBBL, parallel histological studies revealed persistent lobules with cell atypia. Consequently, MBBL with distinct radiomorphological features may result from endocrine dysfunction associated with the postmenopausal period. In such cases, cell atypia is more commonly diagnosed by histology. Accordingly, MBBL can be considered as a precancerous lesion. The changes in hormone levels observed suggest that endocrine dysfunction is accompanied by a slight impairment of negative feedback regulation, and regular clinical and laboratory screening of the risk population is recommended.

Acknowledgement

This study was carried out under the auspices of the Secondary Prevention Subcomponent (1.13) of the World Bank HSM Project (3597-HU).

Free access

Yong Lin, Xiaofei Jiang, Ye Shen, Min Li, Huili Ma, Mingzhao Xing, and Yuan Lu

Genetic alterations in the PIK3CA gene of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway have been found in many human tumors, but they have not been explored in pituitary tumors. We undertook the present study to explore mutations and amplifications of the PIK3CA gene in pituitary tumors. DNA sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR were used to examine mutations and amplifications respectively, on genomic DNA samples isolated from 353 cases of pituitary tumors, and immunohistostaining was used to assess PIK3CA expression. About 8 out of 91 (9%) invasive pituitary tumors versus 0 out of 262 (0%) noninvasive tumors were found to harbor somatic mutations in exons 9 and 20 of the PIK3CA gene (P<0.001), and the mutation was associated with increased disease recurrence. Genomic PIK3CA amplifications (defined as ≥4 copies) were observed in both invasive and noninvasive tumors, with a prevalence of around 20–40% in various types of pituitary tumors. PIK3CA protein overexpression was observed in cases with high PIK3CA copy number. RAS mutations were also examined and found in 6 out of the 91 (7%) invasive tumors. PIK3CA amplifications were mutually exclusive with PIK3CA or RAS mutations (P<0.001). This study demonstrated for the first time relatively common PIK3CA mutations and amplifications as well as RAS mutations and their tendency of mutual exclusivity in pituitary tumors. The data provide strong genetic evidence supporting a role of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the tumorigenesis of pituitary tumors, particularly the invasive types.

Free access

Juan Pablo Petiti, Liliana del Valle Sosa, Florencia Picech, Gabriela Deisi Moyano Crespo, Jean Zander Arevalo Rojas, Pablo Anibal Pérez, Carolina Beatriz Guido, Carolina Leimgruber, María Eugenia Sabatino, Pedro García, Verónica Bengio, Francisco Roque Papalini, Paula Estario, Celina Berhard, Marcos Villarreal, Silvina Gutiérrez, Ana Lucía De Paul, Jorge Humberto Mukdsi, and Alicia Inés Torres

In pituitary adenomas, early recurrences and resistance to conventional pharmacotherapies are common, but the mechanisms involved are still not understood. The high expression of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signal observed in human pituitary adenomas, together with the low levels of the antimitogenic transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TBR2), encouraged us to evaluate the effect of the specific HER2 inhibition with trastuzumab on experimental pituitary tumor cell growth and its effect on the antiproliferative response to TGFB1. Trastuzumab decreased the pituitary tumor growth as well as the expression of ERK1/2 and the cell cycle regulators CCND1 and CDK4. The HER2/ERK1/2 pathway is an attractive therapeutic target, but its intricate relations with other signaling modulators still need to be unraveled. Thus, we investigated possible cross-talk with TGFB signaling, which has not yet been studied in pituitary tumors. In tumoral GH3 cells, co-incubation with trastuzumab and TGFB1 significantly decreased cell proliferation, an effect accompanied by a reduction in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, an increase of SMAD2/3 activation. In addition, through immunoprecipitation assays, a diminution of SMAD2/3-ERK1/2 and an increase SMAD2/3–TGFBR1 interactions were observed when cells were co-incubated with trastuzumab and TGFB1. These findings indicate that blocking HER2 by trastuzumab inhibited pituitary tumor growth and modulated HER2/ERK1/2 signaling and consequently the anti-mitogenic TGFB1/TBRs/SMADs cascade. The imbalance between HER2 and TGFBRs expression observed in human adenomas and the response to trastuzumab on experimental tumor growth may make the HER2/ERK1/2 pathway an attractive target for future pituitary adenoma therapy.

Free access

Alexander Gorshtein, Hadara Rubinfeld, Efrat Kendler, Marily Theodoropoulou, Vesna Cerovac, Günter K Stalla, Zvi R Cohen, Moshe Hadani, and Ilan Shimon

The effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors on pituitary tumors is unknown. Akt overexpression was demonstrated in pituitary adenomas, which may render them sensitive to the anti-proliferative effects of these drugs. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-proliferative efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, and its orally bioavailable analog RAD001 on the GH-secreting pituitary tumor GH3 and MtT/S cells and in human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas (GH-omas) in primary cell cultures. Treatment with rapamycin or RAD001 significantly decreased the number of viable cells and cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This was reflected by decreased phosphorylation levels of the downstream mTOR target p70S6K. Rapamycin treatment of GH3 cells induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In other tumor cell types, this was attributed to a decrease in cyclin D1 levels. However, rapamycin did not affect cyclin D1 protein levels in GH3 cells. By contrast, it decreased cyclin D3 and p21/CIP, which stabilizes cyclin D/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) complexes. Rapamycin inhibited FCS-induced retinoblastoma phosphorylation and subsequent E2F-transcriptional activity. In response to decreased E2F activity, the expression of the E2F-regulated genes cyclin E and cdk2 was reduced. Our results showed that mTOR inhibitors potently inhibit pituitary cell proliferation, suggesting that mTOR inhibition may be a promising anti-proliferative therapy for pituitary adenomas. This therapeutic manipulation may have beneficial effects particularly for patients harboring invasive pituitary tumors resistant to current treatments.