Previous studies indicate that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) transcription factor is deregulated and overexpressed in several human neoplasias. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the NF-κB pathway may be involved in parathyroid tumorigenesis. For this purpose, we determined the level of NF-κB activity, evaluated as phosphorylation of the transcription subunit p65, its modulation by specific and non-specific agents and its impact on cyclin D1 expression. Phosphorylated p65 levels present in parathyroid neoplasias (n = 13) were significantly lower than those found in normal tissues (n = 3; mean optical density (OD) 0.19 ± 0.1 vs 0.4 ± 0.1, P = 0.007), but there was no significant difference between adenomas and secondary and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-related hyperplasia. Conversely, MEN2A (Cys634Arg)-related parathyroid samples showed extremely high levels of phosphorylated p65 that exhibited a nuclear localization at immunohistochemistry (n = 3). Phosphorylated p65 levels negatively correlated with menin expression (r 2 = 0.42, P = 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) caused a significant increase in phosphorylated p65 levels (183 ± 13.8% of basal) while calcium sensing receptor (CaR) agonists exerted a significant inhibition (19.2 ± 3.3% of basal). Although TNFα was poorly effective in increasing cyclin D1 expression, NF-κB blockade by the specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 reduced FCS-stimulated cyclin D1 by about 60%. Finally, the inhibitory effects of CaR and BAY11-7082 on cyclin D1 expression were not additive – by blocking NF-κB CaR activation did not induce a further reduction in cyclin D1 levels. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that in parathyroid tumors: (1) p65 phosphorylation was dramatically increased by RET constitutive activation and was negatively correlated with menin expression, (2) p65 phosphorylation was increased and reduced by TNFα and CaR agonists respectively, and (3) blockade of the NF-κB pathway caused a significant decrease in cyclin D1 expression.
S Corbetta, L Vicentini, S Ferrero, A Lania, G Mantovani, D Cordella, P Beck-Peccoz, and A Spada
S Humez, M Monet, G Legrand, G Lepage, P Delcourt, and N Prevarskaya
Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) has been implicated in prostate cancer progression and hormone-therapy failure. Neuroendocrine cells are non-proliferating and escape apoptotic cell death, although their origin and the causes of their apoptotic resistance have as yet been poorly elucidated. This study demonstrates a new mechanism involved in controlling NED. We report that epidermal growth factor (5–50 ng/ml) promotes neuroendocrine-like differentiation of androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells. This differentiation is associated with an increase in the expression of Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) and a reduction in cell proliferation and is blocked by inhibiting tyrosine kinase activity with genistein and with compound 56 (C56). An increase in the cAMP level, using dibutryl cAMP (db-cAMP) (1 mM) and isobutylmethylxanthine (100 μM), does not promote NED by itself, but does increase the effect of EGF on NED. In addition, EGF-induced NED protects cells from apoptosis induced with thapsigargin (1 μM) by reducing the thapsigargin-induced cytosolic calcium overload. In order to describe how EGF-induced NED protects cells against thapigargin-induced calcium overload we investigated the spatiotemporal calcium signalling linked to apoptosis. By using thapsigargin in various conditions on DU145 cells and using micro-fluorimetric calcium measurements, we show that depletion of intracellular calcium store induces apoptosis and that the amplitude and duration of the capacitive calcium entry are two apoptosis-modulating parameters. We show that protection against thapsigargin-induced apoptosis conferred by NED is achieved by reducing the amount and the speed of calcium that can be released from calcium pools, as well as modulating the amplitude of the subsequent calcium entry.
W P Bocchinfuso and K S Korach
Inga Mertens-Walker, Christine Bolitho, Robert C Baxter, and Deborah J Marsh
The gonadotropin hypothesis proposes that elevated serum gonadotropin levels may increase the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We have studied the effect of treating EOC cell lines (OV207 and OVCAR-3) with FSH or LH. Both gonadotropins activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway and increased cell migration that was inhibited by the MAPK 1 inhibitor PD98059. Both extra- and intracellular calcium ion signalling were implicated in gonadotropin-induced ERK1/2 activation as treatment with either the calcium chelator EGTA or an inhibitor of intracellular calcium release, dantrolene, inhibited gonadotropin-induced ERK1/2 activation. Verapamil was also inhibitory, indicating that gonadotropins activate calcium influx via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. The cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway was not involved in the mediation of gonadotropin action in these cells as gonadotropins did not increase intracellular cAMP formation and inhibition of PKA did not affect gonadotropin-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Activation of ERK1/2 was inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X as well as by the PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin, and downregulation of PKCδ was inhibited by small interfering RNA (siRNA), highlighting the importance of PKCδ in the gonadotropin signalling cascade. Furthermore, in addition to inhibition by PD98059, gonadotropin-induced ovarian cancer cell migration was also inhibited by verapamil, GF 109203X and rottlerin. Similarly, gonadotropin-induced proliferation was inhibited by PD98059, verapamil, GF 109203X and PKCδ siRNA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that gonadotropins induce both ovarian cancer cell migration and proliferation by activation of ERK1/2 signalling in a calcium- and PKCδ-dependent manner.
Aruna V Krishnan and David Feldman
Calcitriol, the hormonally active form of vitamin D, exerts multiple anti-proliferative and pro-differentiating actions including cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in many malignant cells, and the hormone is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as an anti-cancer agent. Recent research reveals that calcitriol also exhibits multiple anti-inflammatory effects. First, calcitriol inhibits the synthesis and biological actions of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins (PGs) by three mechanisms: i) suppression of the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the enzyme that synthesizes PGs; ii) up-regulation of the expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, the enzyme that inactivates PGs; and iii) down-regulation of the expression of PG receptors that are essential for PG signaling. The combination of calcitriol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs results in a synergistic inhibition of the growth of prostate cancer (PCa) cells and offers a potential therapeutic strategy for PCa. Second, calcitriol increases the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 5 in prostate cells resulting in the subsequent inhibition of p38 stress kinase signaling and the attenuation of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Third, calcitriol also exerts anti-inflammatory activity in PCa through the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB signaling that results in potent anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects. Other important direct effects of calcitriol as well as the consequences of its anti-inflammatory effects include the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We hypothesize that these anti-inflammatory actions, in addition to the other known anti-cancer effects of calcitriol, play an important role in its potential use as a therapeutic agent for PCa. Calcitriol or its analogs may have utility as chemopreventive agents and should be evaluated in clinical trials in PCa patients with early or precancerous disease.
J L Reverter, S Holgado, N Alonso, I Salinas, M L Granada, and A Sanmartí
The effect of subclinical hyperthyroidism on bone mineral density is controversial and could be significant in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who receive suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4). To ascertain whether prolonged treatment with LT4 to suppress thyrotropin had a deleterious effect on bone mineral density and/or calcium metabolism in patients thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid cancer we have performed a cross-sectional study in a group of 88 women (mean ± SD age: 51 ± 12 years) treated with LT4 after near-total thyroidectomy and in a control group of 88 healthy women (51 ± 11 years) matched for body mass index and menopausal status. We determined calcium metabolism parameters, bone turnover marker N-telopeptide and bone mass density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. No differences were found between patients and controls in calcium metabolism parameters or N-telopeptide except for PTH, which was significantly increased in controls. No differences were found between groups in bone mineral density in femoral neck (0.971 ± 0.148 gr/cm2 vs 0.956 ± 0.130 gr/cm2 in patients and controls respectively, P = 0.5). In lumbar spine, bone mineral density values were lower in controls than in patients (1.058 ± 0.329 gr/cm2 vs 1.155 ± 0.224 gr/cm2 respectively, P<0.05). When premenopausal (n = 44) and postmenopausal (n = 44) patients were compared with their respective controls, bone mineral density was similar both in femoral neck and lumbar spine. The proportion of women with normal bone mass density, osteopenia and osteoporosis in patient and control groups was similar in pre- and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, long-term suppressive LT4 treatment does not appear to affect skeletal integrity in women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
Thomas Gudermann and Susanne Roelle
Approximately 15–25% of all primary cancers of the lung are classified histologically as small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), a subtype characterized by rapid growth and a poor prognosis. Neuropeptide hormones like bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, bradykinin or galanin are the principal mitogenic stimuli of this tumour entity. The mitogenic signal is transmitted into the cell via heptahelical neuropeptide hormone receptors, which couple to the heterotrimeric G proteins of the Gq/11 familiy. Subsequent activation of phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) entails the activation of protein kinase C and the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration. There is mounting evidence to support the notion that calcium mobilization is the key event that initiates different mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Neuropeptide-dependent proliferation of SCLC cells relies on parallel activation of the Gq/11/PLCβ/Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the c-jun N-terminal kinase pathways, while selective engagement of either signalling cascade alone results in growth arrest and differentiation or apoptotic cell death. Basic experimental research has the potential to identify and validate novel therapeutic targets located at critical points of convergence of different mitogenic signal transduction pathways. In the case of SCLC, targeting the distinct components of the Ca2+ influx pathway as well as critical Ca2+-dependent cellular effectors may be rewarding in this regard.
A C-M Chang, D A Jellinek, and R R Reddel
Stanniocalcin (STC) is a glycoprotein hormone that is secreted by the corpuscle of Stannius, an endocrine gland of bony fish, and is involved in calcium and phosphate homeostasis. The related mammalian proteins, STC1 and STC2, are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. The ovaries have the highest level of STC1, and this increases during pregnancy and lactation. STC1 is present in breast ductal epithelium, and its expression is induced by BRCA1, a tumor suppressor gene that has an important role in breast and ovarian cancer. The expression of STC2 is induced by estrogen, and there is a positive correlation between the level of expression of estrogen receptor and expression of both STC1 and STC2 in breast cancer. This article reviews the data currently available regarding the mammalian STCs, and discusses the roles they may play in normal physiology and in breast and other cancers.
Tanya K Day and Tina Bianco-Miotto
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are widely studied in cancer as they are stable and easy to measure genome wide. DNA methylation changes have been used to differentiate benign from malignant tissue and to predict tumor recurrence or patient outcome. Multiple genome wide DNA methylation studies in breast and prostate cancers have identified genes that are differentially methylated in malignant tissue compared with non-malignant tissue or in association with hormone receptor status or tumor recurrence. Although this has identified potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, what is highlighted by reviewing these studies is the similarities between breast and prostate cancers. In particular, the gene families/pathways targeted by DNA methylation in breast and prostate cancers have significant overlap and include homeobox genes, zinc finger transcription factors, S100 calcium binding proteins, and potassium voltage-gated family members. Many of the gene pathways targeted by aberrant methylation in breast and prostate cancers are not targeted in other cancers, suggesting that some of these targets may be specific to hormonal cancers. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles in breast and prostate cancers will not only define more specific and sensitive biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis but also identify novel therapeutic targets, which may be direct targets of agents that reverse DNA methylation or which may target novel gene families that are themselves DNA methylation targets.
Thais Biude Mendes, Bruno Heidi Nozima, Alexandre Budu, Rodrigo Barbosa de Souza, Marcia Helena Braga Catroxo, Rosana Delcelo, Marcos Leoni Gazarini, and Janete Maria Cerutti
We have identified previously a panel of markers (C1orf24, ITM1 and PVALB) that can help to discriminate benign from malignant thyroid lesions. C1orf24 and ITM1 are specifically helpful for detecting a wide range of thyroid carcinomas, and PVALB is particularly valuable for detecting the benign Hürthle cell adenoma. Although these markers may ultimately help patient care, the current understanding of their biological functions remains largely unknown. In this article, we investigated whether PVALB is critical for the acquisition of Hürthle cell features and explored the molecular mechanism underlying the phenotypic changes. Through ectopic expression of PVALB in thyroid carcinoma cell lines (FTC-133 and WRO), we demonstrated that PVALB sequesters free cytoplasmic Ca2+, which ultimately lowers calcium levels and precludes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ refilling. These results were accompanied by induced expression of PERK, an ER stress marker. Additionally, forced expression of PVALB reduces Ca2+ inflow in the mitochondria, which can in turn cause changes in mitochondria morphology, increase mitochondria number and alter subcellular localization. These findings share striking similarity to those observed in Hürthle cell tumors. Moreover, PVALB inhibits cell growth and induces cell death, most likely through the AKT/GSK-3β. Finally, PVALB expression coincides with Ca2+ deposits in HCA tissues. Our data support the hypothesis that the loss of PVALB plays a role in the pathogenesis of thyroid tumors.