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Meng-Lei Zhu and Natasha Kyprianou

assembly ( Fong et al . 1995 ). Its value as a diagnostic tool as well as a therapeutic target for advanced metastatic prostate cancer has been examined at the molecular and translational level. The ‘hypoxia-response’ signaling system up-regulates the

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Feng Wu, Fuxingzi Li, Xiao Lin, Feng Xu, Rong-Rong Cui, Jia-Yu Zhong, Ting Zhu, Su-Kang Shan, Xiao-Bo Liao, Ling-Qing Yuan, and Zhao-Hui Mo

cancer cells’ dissemination and premetastatic niche formation ( Zhou et al. 2014 ). Hypoxia, an important element of the TME, has emerged as an important regulator of physiological and pathological processes. Under hypoxia, cancer cells secrete

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Federica Grillo, Tullio Florio, Francesco Ferraù, Elda Kara, Giuseppe Fanciulli, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria Colao, and NIKE Group

normal tissues) to produce high levels of VEGF, while angiogenesis in PD-NECs is probably secondary to hypoxia (hence necrosis which is often seen in the latter and not the former) with low secretion of VEGF. Secretion of VEGF is in part controlled by

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Anna Bagnato, Francesca Spinella, and Laura Rosanò

. 2000 , Bremnes et al. 2000 ) and catabolism by extracellular neutral endopeptidase (NEP). ET-1 production is stimulated by a variety of cytokines and growth factors, including IL-1α, TNF-α, TGF-β, PDGF, vasopressin, hypoxia and shear stress

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Deniz M Özata, Stefano Caramuta, David Velázquez-Fernández, Pinar Akçakaya, Hong Xie, Anders Höög, Jan Zedenius, Martin Bäckdahl, Catharina Larsson, and Weng-Onn Lui

) and several reports have shown that its expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). Hypoxia is frequently found in tumors and is associated with radiation-resistance and chemotherapy-resistance, increased metastatic potential and

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Anika Nagelkerke, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Johan Bussink, Fred C G J Sweep, Maxime P Look, John A Foekens, John W M Martens, and Paul N Span

stressful conditions. Survival of stress conditions, such as hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress, can be mediated by a collection of pathways called the unfolded protein response (UPR; Feldman et al . 2005 , Wouters & Koritzinsky 2008 ). One arm of

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Debbie L Hay, Christopher S Walker, and David R Poyner

expression. b [ 125 I]AM radioligand binding in MCF-7 cells. Figure 2 AM and tumour proliferation and blood and lymphatic vascular angiogenesis. AM, released from the tumour (particularly under hypoxia) and endothelial cells in vessels, acts in an autocrine

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Simone de Brot, Atara Ntekim, Ryan Cardenas, Victoria James, Cinzia Allegrucci, David M Heery, David O Bates, Niels Ødum, Jenny L Persson, and Nigel P Mongan

invasion and metastasis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100 1022–1036, copyright 2008. The VEGF promoter is regulated by multiple transcription factor complexes, and the function of the hypoxia-inducible factors in the regulation of VEGF

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Michael Derwahl and Diana Nicula

observed on NIS expression. This result is in accordance with the report on primary FRTL-5 cells mentioned above. Thyroglobulin expression was not affected by E 2 stimulation in thyroid progenitor cells. ERs and hypoxia and inflammation Owing to

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Salma Ben-Salem, Varadha Balaji Venkadakrishnan, and Hannelore V Heemers

showing KCBN2 gene alterations. AHNAK2 or AHNAK nucleoprotein 2, an androgen-regulated gene, may play a role in calcium signaling by associating with calcium channel proteins. Hypoxia can activate the expression of AHNAK2 in HIF1α-dependent manner