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Clotilde Sparano Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France
Endocrinology Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ‘Mario Serio’, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Yann Godbert Nuclear Medicine, and Thyroid Oncology Department, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux, France

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Marie Attard Radiology, Gustave Roussy and Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France

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Christine Do Cao Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, CHRU Lille, Lille, France

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Slimane Zerdoud Nuclear medicine, Claudius-Regaud Institute, Oncology University Institute-IUCT-Oncopole, Toulouse, France

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Nathalie Roudaut Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Brest, Brest, France

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Charlotte Joly Department of Oncology, Henri-Mondor Hospital, Créteil, France

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Amandine Berdelou Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France

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Julien Hadoux Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France

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Livia Lamartina Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France

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Martin Schlumberger Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France

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Sophie Leboulleux Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France

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Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare lethal disease. Lenvatinib is an off-label therapeutic option for ATC in most countries, except in Japan. The aim of this multicenter retrospective survey was to analyze the efficacy and the toxicity profile of off-label lenvatinib treatment in all adults advanced ATC patients, in France. Of the 23 patients analysed (14 males; mean age 64 years), 15 were pure ATC and 8 were mixed tumors (i.e. with a differentiated or poorly differentiated component). Prior treatments included neck external beam irradiation in 74%, at least one line of chemotherapy in 22 cases, two lines of chemotherapy in 11 patients, other TKI in 4 cases. A central RECIST assessment was performed. Since lenvatinib initiation, median PFS was 2.7 months (95% CI; 1.9–3.5) and median OS was 3.1 months (95% CI; 0.6–5.5). OS was significantly longer in case of mixed tumors compared with pure ATC (6.3 vs 2.7 months, P = 0.026). Best tumor response was partial response in two cases and stable disease in seven. Clinical improvement was achieved in seven patients. Lethal adverse events occurred in three patients, consisting in haemoptysis in two cases and pneumothorax in one case. Among long-surviving ATC patients (>6 months), four underwent biopsy of distant metastasis, revealing poorly differentiated histology; three of them had initial mixed ATC histology. Efficacy of lenvatinib appears limited, although pure vs mixed ATC disclose differences in disease aggressiveness and treatment response. Long-surviving ATC patients might benefit from biopsy of persistent disease, searching for histological transition or molecular target.

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Nicola Fazio Division of gastrointestinal medical oncology and neuroendocrine tumors, European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Lorenzo Gervaso Division of gastrointestinal medical oncology and neuroendocrine tumors, European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, Milan, Italy
Molecular Medicine Program, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

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Thorvardur R Halfdanarson Division of Medical Oncology Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Mohamad Sonbol Department of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Rachel A Eiring Division of Medical Oncology Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Sara Pusceddu Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy

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Natalie Prinzi Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy

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Benedetta Lombardi Stocchetti Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy

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Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg Neuroendocrine Tumor Unit, ENETS Center of Excellence, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hadassah Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

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David J Gross Neuroendocrine Tumor Unit, ENETS Center of Excellence, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hadassah Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

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Thomas Walter Medical Oncology Department, Hopital Edourad Herriot, Hospices civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Patrick Robelin Medical Oncology Department, Hopital Edourad Herriot, Hospices civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Catherine Lombard-Bohas Medical Oncology Department, Hopital Edourad Herriot, Hospices civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Samuele Frassoni Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy

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Vincenzo Bagnardi Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy

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Lorenzo Antonuzzo Clinical Oncology Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Clotilde Sparano Endocrinology Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ’Mario Serio’, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Sara Massironi Division of Gastroenterology, and Center for Autoimmune Liver Diseases, European Reference Network on Hepatological Diseases (ERN RARE-LIVER), San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca School of Medicine, Monza, Italy

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Fabio Gelsomino Division of Oncology. Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Modena, Modena, Italy

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Alberto Bongiovanni Oncologia medica, IRCCS Istituto Romagnolo per lo Studio dei Tumori ’Dino Amadori’, IRST S.r.l., Meldola, Italy

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Nicoletta Ranallo Oncologia medica, IRCCS Istituto Romagnolo per lo Studio dei Tumori ’Dino Amadori’, IRST S.r.l., Meldola, Italy

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Salvatore Tafuto Oncologia Sarcomi e Tumori rari, I.R.C.C.S. Ist. Naz. Tumori di Napoli ’G. Pascale’, Napoli, Italy

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Maura Rossi Oncology Unit and Centro Documentazione Osteonecrosi, Azienda Ospedaliera SS Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo, Alessandria, Italy

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Mauro Cives Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari ’Aldo Moro’, Bari, Italy

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Ibrahim Rasul Kakil National Cancer Care and Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar

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Hytam Hamid Department of Surgery, Al-Moalem Medical City, Khartoum, Sudan

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Alessandra Chirco UO Oncologia Medica ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy

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Michela Squadroni Oncologia medica, Humanitas Gavazzeni Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy

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Anna La Salvia Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Imas12, UCM, Madrid, Spain

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Jorge Hernando Vall Hebron University Hospital and Vall Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Barcelona, Spain

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Johannes Hofland Department of Internal Medicine, Sector Endocrinology, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Anna Koumarianou Hematology-Oncology Unit, Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Sabrina Boselli Data Management-Clinical Trial Office. Scientific Direction. European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Darina Tamayo Data Management-Clinical Trial Office. Scientific Direction. European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Cristina Mazzon Data Management-Clinical Trial Office. Scientific Direction. European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Manila Rubino Division of gastrointestinal medical oncology and neuroendocrine tumors, European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Francesca Spada Division of gastrointestinal medical oncology and neuroendocrine tumors, European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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We conducted a retrospective/prospective worldwide study on patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and a molecularly proven SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Preliminary results regarding 85 patients of the INTENSIVE study have been published in 2021. Now we are reporting the 2-year analysis.Here, we are reporting data from consecutive patients enrolled between 1 June 2020, and 31 May 2022. Among the 118 contacted centers, 25 were active to enroll and 19 actively recruiting at the time of data cut-off for a total of 280 patients enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 positivity occurred in 47.5% of patients in 2020, 35.1% in 2021, and 17.4% in 2022. The median age for COVID-19 diagnosis was 60 years. Well-differentiated tumors, non-functioning, metastatic stage, and gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) primary sites represented most of the NENs. COVID-19-related pneumonia occurred in 22.8% of the total, with 61.3% of them requiring hospitalization; 11 patients (3.9%) needed sub-intensive or intensive care unit therapies and 14 patients died (5%), in 11 cases (3.9%) directly related to COVID-19. Diabetes mellitus and age at COVID-19 diagnosis > 70 years were significantly associated with COVID-19 mortality, whereas thoracic primary site with COVID-19 morbidity. A significant decrease in both hospitalization and pneumonia occurred in 2022 vs 2020. In our largest series of NEN patients with COVID-19, the NEN population is similar to the general population of patients with NEN regardless of COVID-19. However, older age, non-GEP primary sites and diabetes mellitus should be carefully considered for increased COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Relevant information could be derived by integrating our results with NENs patients included in other cancer patients with COVID-19 registries.

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