Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas through unknown molecular mechanisms. The best-known interacting partner of AIP is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that mediates the effects of xenobiotics implicated in carcinogenesis. As 75% of AIP mutations disrupt the physical and/or functional interaction with AhR, we postulated that the tumorigenic potential of AIP mutations might result from altered AhR signaling. We evaluated the impact of AIP mutations on the AhR signaling pathway, first in fibroblasts from AIP-mutated patients with pituitary adenomas, by comparison with fibroblasts from healthy subjects, then in transfected pituitary GH3 cells. The AIP protein level in mutated fibroblasts was about half of that in cells from healthy subjects, but AhR expression was unaffected. Gene expression analyses showed significant modifications in the expression of the AhR target genes CYP1B1 and AHRR in AIP-mutated fibroblasts, both before and after stimulation with the endogenous AhR ligand kynurenine. Kynurenine increased Cyp1b1 expression to a greater extent in GH3 cells overexpressing wild type compared with cells expressing mutant AIP. Knockdown of endogenous Aip in these cells attenuated Cyp1b1 induction by the AhR ligand. Both mutant AIP expression and knockdown of endogenous Aip affected the kynurenine-dependent GH secretion of GH3 cells. This study of human fibroblasts bearing endogenous heterozygous AIP mutations and transfected pituitary GH3 cells shows that AIP mutations affect the AIP protein level and alter AhR transcriptional activity in a gene- and tissue-dependent manner.
Anne-Lise Lecoq, Say Viengchareun, Mirella Hage, Jérôme Bouligand, Jacques Young, Audrey Boutron, Philippe Zizzari, Marc Lombès, Philippe Chanson, and Peter Kamenický
Françoise Galland, Ludovic Lacroix, Patrick Saulnier, Philippe Dessen, Geri Meduri, Michèle Bernier, Stéphane Gaillard, Jean Guibourdenche, Thierry Fournier, Danièle Evain-Brion, Jean Michel Bidart, and Philippe Chanson
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) may be locally invasive. Markers of invasiveness are needed to guide patient management and particularly the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. To examine whether invasive NFPAs display a specific gene expression profile relative to non-invasive tumors, we selected 40 NFPAs (38 of the gonadotroph type) and classified them as invasive (n=22) or non-invasive (n=18) on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings. We then performed pangenomic analysis with the 44k Agilent human whole genome expression oligonucleotide microarray in order to identify genes with differential expression between invasive and non-invasive NFPAs. Candidate genes were then tested in qRT-PCR. Prediction class analysis showed that the expression of 346 genes differed between invasive and non-invasive NFPAs (P<0.001), of which 233 genes were up-regulated and 113 genes were down-regulated in invasive tumors. On the basis of Ingenuity networks and the degree of up- or down-regulation in invasive versus non-invasive tumors, 35 genes were selected for expression quantification by qRT-PCR. Overexpression of only four genes was confirmed, namely IGFBP5 (P=0.02), MYO5A (P=0.04), FLT3 (P=0.01), and NFE2L1 (P=0.02). At the protein level, only myosin 5A (MYO5A) immunostaining was stronger in invasive than in non-invasive NFPAs. Molecular signature allows to differentiate ‘grossly’ invasive from non-invasive NFPAs. The product of one of these genes, MYO5A, may be a useful marker of tumor invasiveness.
Pasqualino Malandrino, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Marine Castaing, Jacques Young, Bernard Caillou, Jean-Paul Travagli, Dominique Elias, Thierry de Baere, Clarisse Dromain, Angelo Paci, Philippe Chanson, Martin Schlumberger, Sophie Leboulleux, and Eric Baudin
To progress in the stratification of the first-line therapeutic management of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), we searched for prognostic parameters of survival in patients treated with combined mitotane- and cisplatinum-based chemotherapy as first-line. We retrospectively studied prospectively collected parameters from 131 consecutive patients with metastatic ACC (44 with a tissue specimen available) treated at the Gustave Roussy Institute with mitotane- and platinum-based chemotherapy. Fifty-five patients with clinical, pathological, and morphological data available together with treatment characteristics including detailed follow-up were enrolled. Plasma mitotane levels and ERCC1 protein staining were analyzed. Response was analyzed according to RECIST criteria as well as overall survival (OS) from the start of cisplatinum-based chemotherapy. Parameters impacting on OS were evaluated by univariate analysis, and then analyzed by multivariate analysis. Using a landmark method, OS according to response to chemotherapy was analyzed. Objective response to combined mitotane- and cisplatinum-based chemotherapy was 27.3%. Median OS was 1 year. In the univariate analysis, resection of the primary, time since diagnosis, mitotane monotherapy as single first-line treatment, number of affected organs, plasma mitotane above 14 mg/l, and objective response were predictors of survival. In the multivariate analysis, mitotane level ≥14 mg/l and objective response to platinum-based chemotherapy were found to be independent predictors of survival (P=0.03 and <0.001). Our study suggests a prognostic role for mitotane therapy and objective response to platinum-based chemotherapy.
Iulia Potorac, Patrick Petrossians, Adrian F Daly, Franck Schillo, Claude Ben Slama, Sonia Nagi, Mouna Sahnoun, Thierry Brue, Nadine Girard, Philippe Chanson, Ghaidaa Nasser, Philippe Caron, Fabrice Bonneville, Gérald Raverot, Véronique Lapras, François Cotton, Brigitte Delemer, Brigitte Higel, Anne Boulin, Stéphan Gaillard, Florina Luca, Bernard Goichot, Jean-Louis Dietemann, Albert Beckers, and Jean-François Bonneville
Responses of GH-secreting adenomas to multimodal management of acromegaly vary widely between patients. Understanding the behavioral patterns of GH-secreting adenomas by identifying factors predictive of their evolution is a research priority. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the T2-weighted adenoma signal on diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acromegaly and clinical and biological features at diagnosis. An international, multicenter, retrospective analysis was performed using a large population of 297 acromegalic patients recently diagnosed with available diagnostic MRI evaluations. The study was conducted at ten endocrine tertiary referral centers. Clinical and biochemical characteristics, and MRI signal findings were evaluated. T2-hypointense adenomas represented 52.9% of the series, were smaller than their T2-hyperintense and isointense counterparts (P<0.0001), were associated with higher IGF1 levels (P=0.0001), invaded the cavernous sinus less frequently (P=0.0002), and rarely caused optic chiasm compression (P<0.0001). Acromegalic men tended to be younger at diagnosis than women (P=0.067) and presented higher IGF1 values (P=0.01). Although in total, adenomas had a predominantly inferior extension in 45.8% of cases, in men this was more frequent (P<0.0001), whereas in women optic chiasm compression of macroadenomas occurred more often (P=0.0067). Most adenomas (45.1%) measured between 11 and 20 mm in maximal diameter and bigger adenomas were diagnosed at younger ages (P=0.0001). The T2-weighted signal differentiates GH-secreting adenomas into subgroups with particular behaviors. This raises the question of whether the T2-weighted signal could represent a factor in the classification of acromegalic patients in future studies.
Elena Valassi, Frédéric Castinetti, Amandine Ferriere, Stylianos Tsagarakis, Richard A Feelders, Romana T Netea-Maier, Michael Droste, Christian J Strasburger, Dominique Maiter, Darko Kastelan, Philippe Chanson, Susan M Webb, Frank Demtröder, Valdis Pirags, Olivier Chabre, Holger Franz, Alicia Santos, and Martin Reincke
Corticotroph tumor progression after bilateral adrenalectomy/Nelson’s syndrome (CTP-BADX/NS) is a severe complication of bilateral adrenalectomy (BADX). The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence, presentation and outcome of CTP-BADX/NS in patients with Cushing’s disease (CD) included in the European Registry on Cushing’s Syndrome (ERCUSYN). We examined data on 1045 CD patients and identified 85 (8%) who underwent BADX. Of these, 73 (86%) had follow-up data available. The median duration of follow-up since BADX to the last visit/death was 7 years (IQR 2–9 years). Thirty-three patients (45%) experienced CTP-BADX/NS after 3 years (1.5–6) since BADX. Cumulative progression-free survival was 73% at 3 years, 66% at 5 years and 46% at 10 years. CTP-BADX/NS patients more frequently had a visible tumor at diagnosis of CD than patients without CTP-BADX/NS (P < 0.05). Twenty-seven CTP-BADX/NS patients underwent surgery, 48% radiotherapy and 27% received medical therapy. The median time since diagnosis of CTP-BADX/NS to the last follow-up visit was 2 years (IQR, 1–5). Control of tumor progression was not achieved in 16 of 33 (48%) patients, of whom 8 (50%) died after a mean of 4 years. Maximum adenoma size at diagnosis of CD was associated with further tumor growth in CTP-BADX/NS despite treatment (P = 0.033). Diagnosis of CTP-BADX/NS, older age, greater UFC levels at diagnosis of CD and initial treatment predicted mortality. In conclusion, CTP-BADX/NS was reported in 45% of the ERCUSYN patients who underwent BADX, and control of tumor growth was reached in half of them. Future studies are needed to establish effective strategies for prevention and treatment.
Patrick Petrossians, Adrian F Daly, Emil Natchev, Luigi Maione, Karin Blijdorp, Mona Sahnoun-Fathallah, Renata Auriemma, Alpha M Diallo, Anna-Lena Hulting, Diego Ferone, Vaclav Hana Jr, Silvia Filipponi, Caroline Sievers, Claudia Nogueira, Carmen Fajardo-Montañana, Davide Carvalho, Vaclav Hana, Günter K Stalla, Marie-Lise Jaffrain-Réa, Brigitte Delemer, Annamaria Colao, Thierry Brue, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Sabina Zacharieva, Philippe Chanson, and Albert Beckers
Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by chronic growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion. While diagnostic and therapeutic methods have advanced, little information exists on trends in acromegaly characteristics over time. The Liège Acromegaly Survey (LAS) Database, a relational database, is designed to assess the profile of acromegaly patients at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up at multiple treatment centers. The following results were obtained at diagnosis. The study population consisted of 3173 acromegaly patients from ten countries; 54.5% were female. Males were significantly younger at diagnosis than females (43.5 vs 46.4 years; P < 0.001). The median delay from first symptoms to diagnosis was 2 years longer in females (P = 0.015). Ages at diagnosis and first symptoms increased significantly over time (P < 0.001). Tumors were larger in males than females (P < 0.001); tumor size and invasion were inversely related to patient age (P < 0.001). Random GH at diagnosis correlated with nadir GH levels during OGTT (P < 0.001). GH was inversely related to age in both sexes (P < 0.001). Diabetes mellitus was present in 27.5%, hypertension in 28.8%, sleep apnea syndrome in 25.5% and cardiac hypertrophy in 15.5%. Serious cardiovascular outcomes like stroke, heart failure and myocardial infarction were present in <5% at diagnosis. Erythrocyte levels were increased and correlated with IGF-1 values. Thyroid nodules were frequent (34.0%); 820 patients had colonoscopy at diagnosis and 13% had polyps. Osteoporosis was present at diagnosis in 12.3% and 0.6–4.4% had experienced a fracture. In conclusion, this study of >3100 patients is the largest international acromegaly database and shows clinically relevant trends in the characteristics of acromegaly at diagnosis.
Liliya Rostomyan, Adrian F Daly, Patrick Petrossians, Emil Nachev, Anurag R Lila, Anne-Lise Lecoq, Beatriz Lecumberri, Giampaolo Trivellin, Roberto Salvatori, Andreas G Moraitis, Ian Holdaway, Dianne J Kranenburg - van Klaveren, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Nuria Palacios, Cecile Nozieres, Margaret Zacharin, Tapani Ebeling, Marja Ojaniemi, Liudmila Rozhinskaya, Elisa Verrua, Marie-Lise Jaffrain-Rea, Silvia Filipponi, Daria Gusakova, Vyacheslav Pronin, Jerome Bertherat, Zhanna Belaya, Irena Ilovayskaya, Mona Sahnoun-Fathallah, Caroline Sievers, Gunter K Stalla, Emilie Castermans, Jean-Hubert Caberg, Ekaterina Sorkina, Renata Simona Auriemma, Sachin Mittal, Maria Kareva, Philippe A Lysy, Philippe Emy, Ernesto De Menis, Catherine S Choong, Giovanna Mantovani, Vincent Bours, Wouter De Herder, Thierry Brue, Anne Barlier, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Sabina Zacharieva, Philippe Chanson, Nalini Samir Shah, Constantine A Stratakis, Luciana A Naves, and Albert Beckers
Despite being a classical growth disorder, pituitary gigantism has not been studied previously in a standardized way. We performed a retrospective, multicenter, international study to characterize a large series of pituitary gigantism patients. We included 208 patients (163 males; 78.4%) with growth hormone excess and a current/previous abnormal growth velocity for age or final height >2 s.d. above country normal means. The median onset of rapid growth was 13 years and occurred significantly earlier in females than in males; pituitary adenomas were diagnosed earlier in females than males (15.8 vs 21.5 years respectively). Adenomas were ≥10 mm (i.e., macroadenomas) in 84%, of which extrasellar extension occurred in 77% and invasion in 54%. GH/IGF1 control was achieved in 39% during long-term follow-up. Final height was greater in younger onset patients, with larger tumors and higher GH levels. Later disease control was associated with a greater difference from mid-parental height (r=0.23, P=0.02). AIP mutations occurred in 29%; microduplication at Xq26.3 – X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) – occurred in two familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds and in ten sporadic patients. Tumor size was not different in X-LAG, AIP mutated and genetically negative patient groups. AIP-mutated and X-LAG patients were significantly younger at onset and diagnosis, but disease control was worse in genetically negative cases. Pituitary gigantism patients are characterized by male predominance and large tumors that are difficult to control. Treatment delay increases final height and symptom burden. AIP mutations and X-LAG explain many cases, but no genetic etiology is seen in >50% of cases.