Mutations of the MEN1 gene lead to the occurrence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). To gain insights into the mechanisms of the tumorigenesis related to MEN1 inactivation, we have used mice in which the Men1 gene was specifically disrupted in pancreatic β-cells. In these mice, we observed full penetrance of insulinoma with defined histological characteristics of tumorigenesis. To identify the genetic factors taking part in the tumour development, we performed gene expression profiling analysis of these insulinomas at different stages. Here, we show that in late stage insulinomas, 56 genes are up-regulated and 194 are down-regulated more than fourfold compared with normal pancreatic islets. Clustering analysis reveals the deregulation of Hox gene family and the genes involved in cell proliferation and cell cycle control. The altered expression of Igf2, Igfbp3 and Igfbp6 as well as cyclin A2, B2 and D2 are confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, with the overexpression of all the three cyclins found in early stage insulinomas. Moreover, an increased proportion of cyclin A2- and D2-expressing cells and the overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) protein are detected in mouse Men1 insulinomas by immunostaining. Interestingly, the analysis of DNA methylation patterns by quantitative serial pyrosequencing reveals that four specific CpGs in the intragenic differentially methylated region 2 (DMR2) region of the Igf2 gene known to augment transcription through methylation are significantly hypermethylated in insulinomas of Men1 β-cell mutant mice at 6 and 10 months of age, even before IGF2 overexpression can be detected. Thus, our data indicate the involvement of both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in early tumorigenesis of β-cells related to MEN1 inactivation.
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- Author: A Wierinckx x
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S Fontanière, J Tost, A Wierinckx, J Lachuer, J Lu, N Hussein, F Busato, I Gut, Z-Q Wang, and C-X Zhang
M Principe, M Chanal, V Karam, A Wierinckx, I Mikaélian, R Gadet, C Auger, V Raverot, E Jouanneau, A Vasiljevic, A Hennino, G Raverot, and P Bertolino
Prolactinoma represents the most frequent hormone-secreting pituitary tumours. These tumours appear in a benign form, but some of them can reach an invasive and aggressive stage through an unknown mechanism. Discovering markers to identify prolactinoma proliferative and invading character is therefore crucial to develop new diagnostic/prognostic strategies. Interestingly, members of the TGFβ-Activin/BMP signalling pathways have emerged as important actors of pituitary development and adult function, but their role in prolactinomas remains to be precisely determined. Here, using a heterotopic allograft model derived from a rat prolactinoma, we report that the Activins orphan type I receptor ALK7 is ectopically expressed in prolactinomas-cells. Through immunohistological approaches, we further confirm that normal prolactin-producing cells lack ALK7-expression. Using a series of human tumour samples, we show that ALK7 expression in prolactinomas cells is evolutionary conserved between rat and human. More interestingly, our results highlight that tumours showing a robust expression of ALK7 present an increased proliferation as address by Ki67 expression and retrospective analysis of clinical data from 38 patients, presenting ALK7 as an appealing marker of prolactinoma aggressiveness. Beside this observation, our work pinpoints that the expression of prolactin is highly heterogeneous in prolactinoma cells. We further confirm the contribution of ALK7 in these observations and the existence of highly immunoreactive prolactin cells lacking ALK7 expression. Taken together, our observations suggest that Activin signalling mediated through ALK7 could therefore contribute to the hormonal heterogeneity and increased proliferation of prolactinomas.