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  • Author: Andrew E. Greenstein x
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Andrew E. Greenstein, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Subhagya A. Wadekar, and Andreas Grauer

Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) activity may limit tumor immune response and immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) efficacy. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) provides a unique test case to assess correlates of GC activity, as approximately half of ACC patients exhibit excess GC production (GC+). ACC multi-omics were analyzed to identify molecular consequences of GC+ and assess the rationale for combining the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist relacorilant with an ICI. GC status, mRNA expression, and DNA mutation and methylation data from 71 adrenal tumors were accessed via The Cancer Genome Atlas. Expression of 858 genes differed significantly between GC- and GC+ ACC cases. KEGG pathway analysis showed higher gene expression of 3 pathways involved in steroid synthesis and secretion in GC+ cases. Fifteen pathways, most related to NK cells and other immune activity, showed lower expression. Hypomethylation was primarily observed in the steroid synthesis pathways. Tumor-infiltrating CD4+ memory (P=.003), CD8+ memory (P=.001), and NKT-cells (P=.014) were depleted in GC+ cases; tumor-associated neutrophils were enriched (P=.001). Given the pronounced differences between GC+ and GC- ACC, the effects of cortisol on NK cells were assessed in vitro (NK cells from human PBMCs stimulated with IL-2 or IL-12/15). Cortisol suppressed, and relacorilant restored, NK cell activation, proliferation, and direct tumor cell killing. Thus, GR antagonism may increase the abundance and function of NK and other immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, promoting immune response in GC+ ACC and other malignancies with GC+. This hypothesis will be tested in a phase 1 trial of relacorilant + ICI.