Diffuse sclerosing variant (DSV) of papillary thyroid carcinomais a rare form of thyroid cancer that demonstrates more aggressive histopathology than classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (c-PTC); however, if this leads to worse survival is debated. Many DSVs are driven by fusion events which are of recent clinical importance due to the advent of targeted RET inhibitors. A systematic search and meta-analysis of the literature was performed to compare outcomes of disease-specific mortality (DSM), metastatic and recurrent disease and the incidence of fusion events between DSV and c-PTC to July 2022. The Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment studies was used to assess quality. An odds ratio (OR) was utilised to measure outcomes with 95% CIs. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guideline was followed. Seventeen studies were included with 874 DSV patients compared to 76,013 c-PTC patients. DSV patients had worse DSM (OR=2.50, 95% CI 1.39–4.51) and presented with a higher rate of metastatic lymph nodes (OR = 5.85, 95% CI 2.73–12.53) and more distant metastases (OR = 3.83, 95% CI 2.17–6.77). DSV patients had higher odds of recurrent disease (OR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.00–5.23) and overall distant metastasis (OR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.74–4.17). Rates of RET fusion alterations for DSV ranged from 25 to 83%. DSV has a worse prognosis than c-PTC with higher rates of recurrent disease and distant metastasis. The high prevalence of RET fusions offers the potential to improve outcomes for patients with DSV.
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Henry Crayton, Katherine Wu, David Leong, Nazim Bhimani, Matti Gild, and Anthony Glover
Nunki Hassan, Jing Ting Zhao, Anthony Glover, Bruce G Robinson, and Stan B Sidhu
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has high recurrence rates and poor prognosis with limited response to conventional cancer therapy. Recent contributions of high-throughput transcriptomic profiling identified microRNA-497 (miR-497) as significantly underexpressed, while lncRNA MALAT1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) as overexpressed in ACC. miR-497 is located in the chromosomal region 17p13.1, in which there is a high frequency of loss of heterozygosity in ACC. We aim to investigate the interaction of miR-497 and MALAT1 in ACC and its functional roles in the process of tumourigenesis. In this study, we demonstrated miR-497 post-transcriptionally repressed MALAT1 while MALAT1 also competes for miR-497 binding to its molecular target, EIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E). We showed that overexpression of miR-497 and silencing of MALAT1 suppressed cellular proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest through downregulation of EIF4E expression. Furthermore, MALAT1 directly binds to SFPQ (splicing factor proline and glutamine rich) protein, indicating its multifaceted roles in ACC pathophysiology. This is the first study to identify the feedback axis of miR-497-MALAT1/EIF4E in ACC tumourigenesis, providing novel insights into the molecular functions of noncoding RNAs in ACC.
Venessa H M Tsang, Matti Gild, Anthony Glover, Roderick Clifton-Bligh, and Bruce G Robinson
COVID-19 has modified the way we practice medicine. For thyroid cancer, there have been several significant impacts. First, the diagnosis has been delayed due to social isolation, reduced access to investigations and staff redeployment. Secondly, treatment planning has needed to take into account the risk to patients and/or staff of nosocomial transmission of the virus. Finally, there are some specific concerns with respect to interactions between the virus, its treatments and cancer. This mini-review aims to address each of these impacts and to provide some guidance and confidence to our patients and colleagues during this challenging time.