There is a consensus that progestins and thus their cognate receptor molecules, the progesterone receptors (PRs), are essential in the development of the adult mammary gland and regulators of proliferation and lactation. However, a role for natural progestins in breast carcinogenesis remains poorly understood. A hint to that possible role came from studies in which the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate was associated with an increased breast cancer risk in women under hormone replacement therapy. However, progestins have also been used for breast cancer treatment and to inhibit the growth of several experimental breast cancer models. More recently, PRs have been shown to be regulators of estrogen receptor signaling. With all this information, the question is how can we target PR, and if so, which patients may benefit from such an approach? PRs are not single unique molecules. Two main PR isoforms have been characterized, PRA and PRB, which exert different functions and the relative abundance of one isoform with respect to the other determines the response of PR agonists and antagonists. Immunohistochemistry with standard antibodies against PR do not discriminate between isoforms. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the expression of both PR isoforms in mammary glands, in experimental models of breast cancer and in breast cancer patients, to better understand how the PRA/PRB ratio can be exploited therapeutically to design personalized therapeutic strategies.
Caroline A Lamb, Victoria T Fabris, Britta M Jacobsen, Alfredo Molinolo and Claudia Lanari
Claudia Lanari, Caroline A Lamb, Victoria T Fabris, Luisa A Helguero, Rocío Soldati, María Cecilia Bottino, Sebastián Giulianelli, Juan Pablo Cerliani, Victoria Wargon and Alfredo Molinolo
More than 60% of all breast neoplasias are ductal carcinomas expressing estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). By contrast, most of the spontaneous, chemically or mouse mammary tumor virus induced tumors, as well as tumors arising in genetically modified mice do not express hormone receptors. We developed a model of breast cancer in which the administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate to BALB/c female mice induces mammary ductal carcinomas with a mean latency of 52 weeks and an incidence of about 80%. These tumors are hormone-dependent (HD), metastatic, express both ER and PR, and are maintained by syngeneic transplants. The model has been further refined to include mammary carcinomas that evolve through different stages of hormone dependence, as well as several hormone-responsive cell lines. In this review, we describe the main features of this tumor model, highlighting the role of PR as a trigger of key signaling pathways mediating tumor growth. In addition, we discuss the relevance of this model in comparison with other presently used breast cancer models pointing out its advantages and limitations and how, this model may be suitable to unravel key questions in breast cancer.