In this retrospective study, we evaluated the chromogranin A (CgA) baseline value as a predictor of clinical outcome in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with abiraterone 1000 mg per day, whose disease progressed after docetaxel chemotherapy. In the 48 evaluable patients, serum CgA level was normal when <120 ng/ml (group A, n=16), within three times the upper normal value (UNV) when between 120 and 360 (group B, n=16), more than three times the UNV when ≥360 ng/ml (group C, n=16). Decline in PSA level ≥50% or more (PSA RR) was observed in 26 of 48 (54%) patients. PSA response rate did not correlate with the CgA groups. CgA levels more than three times the UNV predicted an early radiological progressive disease in eight of 11 cases (73%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) among the CgA groups A, B, and C was 9.2, 9.2, and 4.8 months respectively, P=0.0459. The median overall survival (OS) among the CgA groups was 19.0, 18.8, and 10.8 months respectively, P=0.2092. In the multivariate analysis, PSA RR (nonresponsive vs responsive) and CgA levels (group 3 vs groups 1+2) were predictors of PFS (P=0.0002 and P=0.0047 respectively), whereas PSA RR only was significantly associated with OS (P=0.0024), while CgA levels remained of borderline significance (P=0.0919). A serum CGA level more than three times the UNV predicted PFS and showed a trend vs OS prediction, independently from PSA response, in CRPC patients treated with abiraterone.
Salvatore Luca Burgio, Vincenza Conteduca, Cecilia Menna, Elisa Carretta, Lorena Rossi, Emanuela Bianchi, Barbara Kopf, Francesca Fabbri, Dino Amadori and Ugo De Giorgi
Claudio Ricci, Stefano Partelli, Carlo Ingaldi, Valentina Andreasi, Davide Campana, Francesca Muffatti, Laura Alberici, Cecilia Giorgi, Riccardo Casadei and Massimo Falconi
Overall survival (OS) is considered as the standard measure of outcome in oncology. However, considering that resectable pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (Pan-NENs) usually have a long OS, the feasibility of prospective studies is questionable due to a long follow-up period needed. The primary endpoint was to validate the use of disease-free survival (DFS) as a surrogate measure of OS. The secondary endpoint was to calculate the gain in sample size using DFS instead of OS in hypothetical prospective studies with two parallel groups. A systematic review of studies reporting both OS and DFS in resected Pan-NENs was carried out. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate if DFS predicts the OS in patients undergoing radical resection. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to estimate the gain in sample size, supposing the use of DFS instead of OS, to evaluate a hypothetical adjuvant treatment after surgery in a randomized trial. Six studies reporting data about seven cohorts of resected Pan-NENs were included, for a total of 1088 patients. The median OS and DFS were 144 (27–134) and 122 (50–267) months, respectively. There was a significant correlation between DFS and OS (R 2 = 0.988; P = 0.035). Monte Carlo simulations showed that the number of patients needed to demonstrate a significant reduction of probability of a ‘target event’ in a hypothetical two-arm group exploring the hypothetical role of adjuvant therapy was reduced using DFS instead OS. This finding supports the legitimacy of using DFS as an acceptable surrogate for OS in surgical clinical trials.