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Won-Mook Choi, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Cheol Kwak, Young Ju Lee, Young Youn Cho, Yun Bin Lee, Su Jong Yu, Yoon Jun Kim, Hyeon Hoe Kim, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Sung Yong Cho, Seung Bae Lee, Hyeon Jeong, Chung Yong Kim and Hyo-Suk Lee

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with an increased risk of various malignancies. In this study, we investigated the association between NAFLD and prostate cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy. Consecutive prostate cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were enrolled from two hospitals in Korea and randomly assigned to the training (n=147) or validation set (n=146). The presence of NAFLD, BMI, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, and histological findings including Gleason score (GSc) were analyzed in regard to their association with BCR. NAFLD was diagnosed based on ultrasonography or unenhanced computed tomography images. BCR-free survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. In the training set, 32 (21.8%) patients developed BCR during a median follow-up period of 51 (inter-quartile range, 35–65) months. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of NAFLD (hazard ratio (HR), 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14–0.97; P=0.04) was an independent negative predictive factor of BCR after adjustment for pathological GSc. Applied to the validation set, the presence of NAFLD maintained its prognostic value for longer time-to-BCR (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.06–0.49; P=0.001). In the subgroup analysis of patients with NAFLD, NAFLD fibrosis score was a single independent negative predictor for BCR (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30–0.98; P=0.04). Our study demonstrated that NAFLD may play a protective role against BCR after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Further study is warranted to elucidate the mechanism of protective effect in patients with NAFLD.

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Martin K Bakht, Iulian Derecichei, Yinan Li, Rosa-Maria Ferraiuolo, Mark J Dunning, So Won Oh, Abdulkadir Hussein, Hyewon Youn, Keith F Stringer, Chang Wook Jeong, Gi Jeong Cheon, Cheol Kwak, Keon Wook Kang, Alastair Lamb, Yuzhuo Wang, Xuesen Dong and Lisa Porter

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in most prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPC) cells and acts as a target for molecular imaging. However, some case reports indicate that PSMA-targeted imaging could be ineffectual for delineation of neuroendocrine (NE) prostate cancer (NEPC) lesions due to the suppression of the PSMA gene (FOLH1). These same reports suggest that targeting somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) could be an alternative diagnostic target for NEPC patients. This study evaluates the correlation between expression of FOLH1, NEPC marker genes and SSTR2. We evaluated the transcript abundance for FOLH1 and SSTR2 genes as well as NE markers across 956 tumors. A significant suppression of FOLH1 in NEPC patient samples and AdPC samples with high expression of NE marker genes was observed. We also investigated protein alterations of PSMA and SSTR2 in an NE-induced cell line derived by hormone depletion and lineage plasticity by loss of p53. PSMA is suppressed following NE induction and cellular plasticity in p53-deficient NEPC model. The PSMA-suppressed cells have more colony formation ability and resistance to enzalutamide treatment. Conversely, SSTR2 was only elevated following hormone depletion. In 18 NEPC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models we find a significant suppression of FOLH1 and amplification of SSTR2 expression. Due to the observed FOLH1-supressed signature of NEPC, this study cautions on the reliability of using PMSA as a target for molecular imaging of NEPC. The observed elevation of SSTR2 in NEPC supports the possible ability of SSTR2-targeted imaging for follow-up imaging of low-PSMA patients and monitoring for NEPC development.

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Martin K Bakht, Iulian Derecichei, Yinan Li, Rosa-Maria Ferraiuolo, Mark Dunning, So Won Oh, Abdulkadir Hussein, Hyewon Youn, Keith F Stringer, Chang Wook Jeong, Gi Jeong Cheon, Cheol Kwak, Keon Wook Kang, Alastair D Lamb, Yuzhuo Wang, Xuesen Dong and Lisa A Porter

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in most prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPC) cells and acts as a target for molecular imaging. However, some case reports indicate that PSMA-targeted imaging could be ineffectual for delineation of neuroendocrine (NE) prostate cancer (NEPC) lesions due to the suppression of the PSMA gene (FOLH1). These same reports suggest that targeting somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) could be an alternative diagnostic target for NEPC patients. This study evaluates the correlation between expression of FOLH1, NEPC marker genes and SSTR2. We evaluated the transcript abundance for FOLH1 and SSTR2 genes as well as NE markers across 909 tumors. A significant suppression of FOLH1 in NEPC patient samples and AdPC samples with high expression of NE marker genes was observed. We also investigated protein alterations of PSMA and SSTR2 in an NE-induced cell line derived by hormone depletion and lineage plasticity by loss of p53. PSMA is suppressed following NE induction and cellular plasticity in p53-deficient NEPC model. The PSMA-suppressed cells have more colony formation ability and resistance to enzalutamide treatment. Conversely, SSTR2 was only elevated following hormone depletion. In 18 NEPC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models we find a significant suppression of FOLH1 and amplification of SSTR2 expression. Due to the observed FOLH1-supressed signature of NEPC, this study cautions on the reliability of using PMSA as a target for molecular imaging of NEPC. The observed elevation of SSTR2 in NEPC supports the possible ability of SSTR2-targeted imaging for follow-up imaging of low PSMA patients and monitoring for NEPC development.