The thyroid hormones T3 and T4 have emerged as pro-angiogenic hormones with important implications for cancer management. Endogenous circulating hormone levels may help stimulate cancer progression and limit the effectiveness of anticancer therapy, though clinical data remain inconclusive. The capacity of thyroid hormones to modulate angiogenesis is mediated through non-canonical mechanisms initiated at the cell surface receptor integrin αvβ3. This integrin is predominantly expressed on tumour cells, proliferating endothelial cells and tumour stroma-associated cells, emphasising its potential relevance in angiogenesis and tumour biology. Thyroid hormone/integrin αvβ3 signalling results in the activation of intracellular pathways that are commonly associated with angiogenesis and are mediated through classical pro-angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor. The naturally occurring T4 analogue tetrac blocks the pro-angiogenic actions of thyroid hormones at the integrin receptor, in addition to agonist-independent anti-angiogenic effects. Tetrac reduces endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation through a reduction in the transcription of vascular growth factors/growth factor receptors, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, pro-angiogenic cytokines and a number of other pro-angiogenic genes, while at the same time stimulating the expression of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors. It further modulates vascular growth factor activity by disrupting the crosstalk between integrin αvβ3 and adjacent growth factor receptors. Moreover, tetrac disrupts thyroid hormone-stimulated tumour recruitment, differentiation and the pro-angiogenic signalling of tumour stroma-associated mesenchymal stem cells. Tetrac affects tumour-associated angiogenesis via multiple mechanisms and interferes with other cancer cell survival pathways. In conjunction with its low toxicity and high tissue selectivity, tetrac is a promising candidate for clinical application.
Kathrin A Schmohl, Peter J Nelson and Christine Spitzweg
Christine Spitzweg, John C Morris and Keith C Bible
Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare tumor arising from the calcitonin-producing parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland, occurring either sporadically or alternatively in a hereditary form based on germline RET mutations in approximately one-third of cases. Historically, patients with advanced, metastasized MTC have had a poor prognosis, partly due to limited response to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In the past decade, however, considerable progress has been made in identifying key genetic alterations and dysregulated signaling pathways paving the way for the evaluation of a series of multitargeted kinase inhibitors that have started to meaningfully impact clinical practice. Two drugs, vandetanib and cabozantinib, are now approved in the US and EU for use in advanced, progressive MTC, with additional targeted agents also showing promise or awaiting results from clinical trials. However, the potential for toxicities with significant reduction in quality of life and lack of curative outcomes has to be carefully weighed against potential for benefit. Despite significant PFS prolongation observed in randomized clinical trials, most patients even with metastatic disease enjoy indolent courses with slow progression observed over years, wherein watchful waiting is still the preferred strategy. As advanced, progressive MTC is a rare and complex disease, a multidisciplinary approach centered in specialized centers providing interdisciplinary expertise in the individualization of available therapeutic options is preferred. In this review, we summarize current concepts of the molecular pathogenesis of advanced MTC and discuss results from clinical trials of targeted agents and also cytotoxic chemotherapy in the context of clinical implications and future perspectives.
Kathrin A Schmohl, Andrea M Müller, Alexandra Wechselberger, Svenja Rühland, Nicole Salb, Nathalie Schwenk, Heike Heuer, Janette Carlsen, Burkhard Göke, Peter J Nelson and Christine Spitzweg
To improve our understanding of non-genomic, integrin αvβ3-mediated thyroid hormone action in tumour stroma formation, we examined the effects of triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), l-thyroxine (T4) and integrin-specific inhibitor tetrac on differentiation, migration and invasion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are an integral part of the tumour's fibrovascular network. Primary human bone marrow-derived MSCs were treated with T3 or T4 in the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell-conditioned medium (CM), which resulted in stimulation of the expression of genes associated with cancer-associated fibroblast-like differentiation as determined by qPCR and ELISA. In addition, T3 and T4 increased migration of MSCs towards HCC cell-CM and invasion into the centre of three-dimensional HCC cell spheroids. All these effects were tetrac-dependent and therefore integrin αvβ3-mediated. In a subcutaneous HCC xenograft model, MSCs showed significantly increased recruitment and invasion into tumours of hyperthyroid mice compared to euthyroid and, in particular, hypothyroid mice, while treatment with tetrac almost completely eliminated MSC recruitment. These studies significantly improve our understanding of the anti-tumour activity of tetrac, as well as the mechanisms that regulate MSC differentiation and recruitment in the context of tumour stroma formation, as an important prerequisite for the utilisation of MSCs as gene delivery vehicles.
Christina Schug, Sarah Urnauer, Carsten Jaeckel, Kathrin A Schmohl, Mariella Tutter, Katja Steiger, Nathalie Schwenk, Markus Schwaiger, Ernst Wagner, Peter J Nelson and Christine Spitzweg
Based on their excellent tumor-homing capacity, genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are under investigation as tumor-selective gene delivery vehicles. Transgenic expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in genetically engineered MSCs allows noninvasive tracking of MSC homing by imaging of functional NIS expression as well as therapeutic application of 131I. The use of tumor stroma-activated promoters can improve tumor-specific MSC-mediated transgene delivery. The essential role of transforming growth factor B1 (TGFB1) and the SMAD downstream target in the signaling between tumor and the surrounding stroma makes the biology of this pathway a potential option to better control NIS expression within the tumor milieu. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were stably transfected with a NIS-expressing plasmid driven by a synthetic SMAD-responsive promoter (SMAD-NIS-MSCs). Radioiodide uptake assays revealed a 4.9-fold increase in NIS-mediated perchlorate-sensitive iodide uptake in SMAD-NIS-MSCs after TGFB1 stimulation compared to unstimulated cells demonstrating the successful establishment of MSCs, which induce NIS expression in response to activation of TGFB1 signaling using a SMAD-responsive promoter. 123I-scintigraphy revealed significant tumor-specific radioiodide accumulation and thus NIS expression after systemic application of SMAD-NIS-MSCs into mice harboring subcutaneous tumors derived from the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line HuH7, which express TGFB1. 131I therapy in SMAD-NIS-MSCs-treated mice demonstrated a significant delay in tumor growth and prolonged survival. Making use of the tumoral TGFB1 signaling network in the context of MSC-mediated NIS gene delivery is a promising approach to foster tumor stroma-selectivity of NIS transgene expression and tailor NIS-based gene therapy to TGFB1-rich tumor environments.
Florian Bösch, Katharina Brüwer, Annelore Altendorf-Hofmann, Christoph J Auernhammer, Christine Spitzweg, C Benedikt Westphalen, Stefan Boeck, Gabriele Schubert-Fritschle, Jens Werner, Volker Heinemann, Thomas Kirchner, Martin Angele and Thomas Knösel
Cancer immunotherapy has evolved major breakthroughs in the last years. The cell-surface receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), have been detected in various cancer types. However, the analysis on gastroenteropancreatic neoplasia (GEP-NENs) is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize GEP-NENs with regard to PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). On protein level, we examined TILs, PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in tumor tissue of 244 GEP-NENs using immunohistochemistry. Expression levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters including long-term survival in an observational study. In total, 244 patients could be included. Most of the patients had a NEN of the small intestine (52.5%) or the pancreas (29.5%). All tumors could be graded by their morphology and Ki67 index, with 57.8% G1, 34% G2 and 8.2% G3 tumors. High TILs (19.6%) and high PD-1 (16.1%) expression showed a significant correlation with shorter patient survival (P < 0.05) and with a higher grading. Furthermore, expression of PD-L1 (8.7%) showed a trend to shorter patient survival. High TILs and PD-1 expression are significantly associated with shorter patient survival and higher grading in GEP-NENs. PD-L1 expression showed a trend to shorter patient survival. Immunotherapy might be a promising therapeutic approach in GEP-NENs especially in tumors with high TILs.
Elke Tatjana Aristizabal Prada, Vera Heinzle, Thomas Knösel, Svenja Nölting, Gerald Spöttl, Julian Maurer, Christine Spitzweg, Martin Angele, Nina Schmidt, Felix Beuschlein, Günter K Stalla, Rainer Blaser, Klaus A Kuhn and Christoph J Auernhammer
Tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) inhibitors are investigated as a novel targeted therapy in various cancers. We investigated the in vitro effects of the pan-Trk inhibitor GNF-5837 in human neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. The human neuroendocrine pancreatic BON1, bronchopulmonary NCI-H727 and ileal GOT1 cell lines were treated with GNF-5837 alone and in combination with everolimus. Cell viability decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner in GOT1 cells in response to GNF-5837 treatment, while treatment in BON1 and NCI-H727 cells showed no effect on cellular viability. Trk receptor expression determined GNF-5837 sensitivity. GNF-5837 caused downregulation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling, Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling, the cell cycle and increased apoptotic cell death. The combinational treatment of GNF-5837 with everolimus showed a significant enhancement in inhibition of cell viability vs single substance treatments, due to a cooperative PI3K-Akt-mTOR and Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway downregulation, as well as an enhanced cell cycle component downregulation. Immunohistochemical staining for Trk receptors were performed using a tissue microarray containing 107 tumor samples of gastroenteropancreatic NETs. Immunohistochemical staining with TrkA receptor and pan-Trk receptor antibodies revealed a positive staining in pancreatic NETs in 24.2% (8/33) and 33.3% (11/33), respectively. We demonstrated that the pan-Trk inhibitor GNF-5837 has promising anti-tumoral properties in human NET cell lines expressing the TrkA receptor. Immunohistochemical or molecular screening for Trk expression particularly in pancreatic NETs might serve as predictive marker for molecular targeted therapy with Trk inhibitors.