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Bin Li Department of Neurosurgery, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China

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Sida Zhao Department of Cell and Biology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Yiyuan Chen Department of Cell and Biology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Hua Gao Department of Cell and Biology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Weiyan Xie Department of Cell and Biology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Hongyun Wang Department of Cell and Biology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Peng Zhao Department of Neurosurgical, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Chuzhong Li Department of Neurosurgical, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Yazhuo Zhang Department of Neurosurgical, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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The clinical diagnosis and treatment of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) that invade the cavernous sinus are fraught with difficulties and challenges. Exploring the biological characteristics involved in the occurrence and development of PitNETs that invade the cavernous sinus will help to elucidate the mechanism of cavernous sinus invasion. There are differences between intrasellar tumors (IST) and cavernous sinus-invasion tumors (CST) in ultramicrostructure, tumor microenvironment (TME), gene expression, and signaling pathways. The microvascular endothelial cell is increased in CST. The VEGFR signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, and chemokine signaling pathway are activated in CST. HSPB1 is upregulated in CST and promotes cell proliferation, cell viability, and migration. HSPB1 promotes the release of VEGF from GT1-1 cells and activates the VEGF signaling pathway in bEnd.3 cells. HSPB1 promotes the migration of bEnd.3 cells to GT1-1 cells and promotes the formation of blood vessels of bEnd.3 cells. bEnd.3 cells can release CCL3 and CCL4 and promote the vitality, proliferation, and migration of GT1-1 cells. HSPB1 promotes the formation of blood vessels of bEnd.3 cells and ultimately leads to tumor growth in vivo. HSPB1 acts as a key gene for invasion of the cavernous sinus in PitNETs, remodeling TME by promoting the formation of blood vessels of brain microvascular endothelial cells. The synergistic effect of tumor cells and microvascular endothelial cells promotes tumor progression. The mechanism by which HSPB1 promotes tumor invasion by inducing angiogenesis in PitNETs may be a new target for the treatment of PitNETs invading the cavernous sinus.

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