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Thorvardur R Halfdanarson, Joseph Rubin, Michael B Farnell, Clive S Grant and Gloria M Petersen

Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are uncommon tumors with an annual incidence <1 per 100 000 person-years in the general population. The PETs that produce hormones resulting in symptoms are designated as functional. The majority of PETs are non-functional. Of the functional tumors, insulinomas are the most common, followed by gastrinomas. The clinical course of patients with PETs is variable and depends on the extent of the disease and the treatment rendered. Patients with completely resected tumors generally have a good prognosis, and aggressive surgical therapy in patients with advanced disease may also prolong survival. The epidemiology, prognosis, and established and novel prognostic markers of PETs are reviewed.