Although there is evidence of a significant rise of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) incidence, current treatments are largely insufficient due to somewhat poor knowledge of these tumours. Despite showing differentiated features, NENs exhibit therapeutic resistance to most common treatments, similar to other cancers in many instances. Molecular mechanisms responsible for this resistance phenomenon are badly understood. We aimed at identifying signalling partners responsible of acquired resistance to treatments in order to develop novel therapeutic strategies. We engineered QGP-1 cells resistant to current leading treatments, the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin and the mTor inhibitor everolimus. Cells were chronically exposed to the drugs and assessed for acquired resistance by viability assay. We used microarray-based kinomics to obtain highthroughput kinase activity profiles from drug sensitive vs resistant cells and identified ‘hit’ kinases hyperactivated in drug-resistant cells, including kinases from FGFR family, cyclin-dependant kinases and PKCs in oxaliplatin-resistant (R-Ox) QGP-1 cells. We then validated these ‘hit’ kinases and observed that ERK signalling is specifically enhanced in QGP-1 R-Ox cells. Finally, we assessed drug-resistant cells sensitivity to pharmacological inhibition of ‘hit’ kinases or their signalling partners. We found that FGFR inhibition markedly decreased ERK signalling and cell viability in QGP-1 R-Ox cells. These results suggest that the FGFR/ERK axis is hyperactivated in response to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapeutic strategy. Thus, this sensitive approach, based on the study of kinome activity, allows identifying potential candidates involved in drug resistance in NENs and may be used to broadly investigate markers of NENs therapeutic response.
Corinne Gérard, Marie Lagarde, Flora Poizat, Sandrine Oziel-Taieb, Vincent Garcia, Catherine Roche, Patricia Niccoli, Anne Barlier, and David Romano
Samuel M O’Toole, David S Watson, Tatiana V Novoselova, Lisa E L Romano, Peter J King, Teisha Y Bradshaw, Clare L Thompson, Martin M Knight, Tyson V Sharp, Michael R Barnes, Umasuthan Srirangalingam, William M Drake, and J Paul Chapple
Primary cilia are sensory organelles involved in regulation of cellular signaling. Cilia loss is frequently observed in tumors; yet, the responsible mechanisms and consequences for tumorigenesis remain unclear. We demonstrate that cilia structure and function is disrupted in human pheochromocytomas – endocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla. This is concomitant with transcriptional changes within cilia-mediated signaling pathways that are associated with tumorigenesis generally and pheochromocytomas specifically. Importantly, cilia loss was most dramatic in patients with germline mutations in the pseudohypoxia-linked genes SDHx and VHL. Using a pheochromocytoma cell line derived from rat, we show that hypoxia and oncometabolite-induced pseudohypoxia are key drivers of cilia loss and identify that this is dependent on activation of an Aurora-A/HDAC6 cilia resorption pathway. We also show cilia loss drives dramatic transcriptional changes associated with proliferation and tumorigenesis. Our data provide evidence for primary cilia dysfunction contributing to pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma by a hypoxic/pseudohypoxic mechanism and implicates oncometabolites as ciliary regulators. This is important as pheochromocytomas can cause mortality by mechanisms including catecholamine production and malignant transformation, while hypoxia is a general feature of solid tumors. Moreover, pseudohypoxia-induced cilia resorption can be pharmacologically inhibited, suggesting potential for therapeutic intervention.