The recently cloned small RWD-domain containing protein RSUME was shown to increase protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The latter is the oxygen-regulated subunit of HIF-1, the most important transcription factor of the cellular adaptive processes to hypoxic conditions. It is also a major regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), which is critically involved in the complex process of tumour neovascularisation. In this study, the expression and role of RSUME in pituitary tumours was studied. We found that RSUME mRNA was up-regulated in pituitary adenomas and significantly correlated with HIF-1α mRNA levels. Hypoxia (1% O2) or treatment with hypoxia-mimicking CoCl2 enhanced RSUME and HIF-1α expression, induced translocation of HIF-1α to the nuclei and stimulated VEGF-A production both in pituitary tumour cell lines and primary human pituitary adenoma cell cultures. When RSUME expression was specifically down-regulated by siRNA, the CoCl2-induced increase VEGF-A secretion was strongly reduced which was shown to be a consequence of the RSUME knockdown-associated reduction of HIF-1α synthesis. Thus, RSUME plays an important role in initiating pituitary tumour neovascularisation through regulating HIF-1α levels and subsequent VEGF-A production and may therefore be critically involved in pituitary adenoma progression.
B Shan, J Gerez, M Haedo, M Fuertes, M Theodoropoulou, M Buchfelder, M Losa, G K Stalla, E Arzt and U Renner
C Schaaf, B Shan, M Buchfelder, M Losa, J Kreutzer, W Rachinger, G K Stalla, T Schilling, E Arzt, M J Perone and U Renner
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the active ingredient of the spice plant Curcuma longa and has been shown to act anti-tumorigenic in different types of tumours. Therefore, we have studied its effect in pituitary tumour cell lines and adenomas. Proliferation of lactosomatotroph GH3 and somatotroph MtT/S rat pituitary cells as well as of corticotroph AtT20 mouse pituitary cells was inhibited by curcumin in monolayer cell culture and in colony formation assay in soft agar. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated curcumin-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M. Analysis of cell cycle proteins by immunoblotting showed reduction in cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and no change in p27kip. FACS analysis with Annexin V-FITC/7-aminoactinomycin D staining demonstrated curcumin-induced early apoptosis after 3, 6, 12 and 24 h treatment and nearly no necrosis. Induction of DNA fragmentation, reduction of Bcl-2 and enhancement of cleaved caspase-3 further confirmed induction of apoptosis by curcumin. Growth of GH3 tumours in athymic nude mice was suppressed by curcumin in vivo. In endocrine pituitary tumour cell lines, GH, ACTH and prolactin production were inhibited by curcumin. Studies in 25 human pituitary adenoma cell cultures have confirmed the anti-tumorigenic and hormone-suppressive effects of curcumin. Altogether, the results described in this report suggest this natural compound as a good candidate for therapeutic use on pituitary tumours.
M Fuertes, M Sapochnik, L Tedesco, S Senin, A Attorresi, P Ajler, G Carrizo, A Cervio, G Sevlever, J J Bonfiglio, G K Stalla and E Arzt
Increased levels of the proto-oncogene pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG) have been repeatedly reported in several human solid tumors, especially in endocrine-related tumors such as pituitary adenomas. Securin PTTG has a critical role in pituitary tumorigenesis. However, the cause of upregulation has not been found yet, despite analyses made at the gene, promoter and mRNA level that show that no mutations, epigenetic modifications or other mechanisms that deregulate its expression may explain its overexpression and action as an oncogene. We describe that high PTTG protein levels are induced by the RWD-containing sumoylation enhancer (RWDD3 or RSUME), a protein originally identified in the same pituitary tumor cell line in which PTTG was also cloned. We demonstrate that PTTG and RSUME have a positive expression correlation in human pituitary adenomas. RSUME increases PTTG protein in pituitary tumor cell lines, prolongs the half-life of PTTG protein and regulates the PTTG induction by estradiol. As a consequence, RSUME enhances PTTG transcription factor and securin activities. PTTG hyperactivity on the cell cycle resulted in recurrent and unequal divisions without cytokinesis, and the consequential appearance of aneuploidies and multinucleated cells in the tumor. RSUME knockdown diminishes securin PTTG and reduces its tumorigenic potential in a xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our findings show that PTTG high protein steady state levels account for PTTG tumor abundance and demonstrate a critical role of RSUME in this process in pituitary tumor cells.