Well-established associations between reproductive characteristics and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) support an involvement of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC. Limited previous studies have evaluated circulating androgens and the risk of EOC, and estrogens and progesterone have been investigated in only one of the previous studies. Furthermore, there is little data on potential heterogeneity in the association between circulating hormones and EOC by histological subgroup. Therefore, we conducted a nested case–control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort to investigate the associations between circulating pre-diagnostic sex steroid concentrations and the histological subtypes of EOC. We identified 1052 EOC cases among cohort members diagnosed after recruitment (1975–2008) and before March 2011. Up to three controls were individually matched to each case (n=2694). Testosterone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), progesterone, estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum samples collected during the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Associations between hormones and EOC differed with respect to tumor histology and invasiveness. Sex steroid concentrations were not associated with invasive serous tumors; however, doubling of testosterone and 17-OHP concentration was associated with approximately 40% increased risk of borderline serous tumors. A doubling of androgen concentrations was associated with a 50% increased risk of mucinous tumors. The risk of endometrioid tumors increased with higher E2 concentrations (OR: 1.89 (1.20–2.98)). This large prospective study in pregnant women supports a role of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC arising in the ovaries.
Helena Schock, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Kjell Grankvist, Hans-Åke Lakso, Renée Turzanski Fortner, Rudolf Kaaks, Eero Pukkala, Matti Lehtinen, Paolo Toniolo and Eva Lundin
Valtter B Virtanen, Eero Pukkala, Reetta Kivisaari, Perttu P Salo, Antti Koivusalo, Johanna Arola, Päivi J Miettinen, Risto J Rintala, Markus Perola and Mikko P Pakarinen
The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of thyroid cancer and co-occurring RET mutations in a population-based cohort of adult Hirschsprung disease (HD) patients. All 156 patients operated for HD in a tertiary center during 1950–1986 were followed for thyroid malignancies up to 2010 through the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. Ninety-one individuals participated in clinical and genetic screening, which included serum calcitonin and thyroid ultrasound (US) with cytology. Exons 10, 11, 13, and 16 were sequenced in all, and all exons of RET in 43 of the subjects, including those with thyroid cancer, RET mutations, suspicious clinical findings, and familial or long-segment disease. Through the cancer registry, two cases (aged 35 and 37 years) of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) were observed; the incidence for MTC was 340-fold (95% CI 52–1600) compared with average population. These individuals had C611R and C620R mutations in exon 10. One papillary thyroid cancer without RET mutations was detected by clinical screening. Four subjects (aged 31–50 years) with co-occurring RET mutations in exons 10 (C609R; n=1) and 13 (Y791F, n=3) had sporadic short-segment HD with normal thyroid US and serum calcitonin. Three novel mutations and five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found outside exons 10 and 13 without associated signs of thyroid cancer. MTC-associated RET mutations were restricted to exons 10 and 13 affecting ∼5% of unselected adults with HD. Clinical thyroid assessment did not improve accuracy of genetic screening, which should not be limited to patients with familial or long-segment disease.