The management of radioiodine refractory thyroid cancers (RAIR TC) is challenging for the clinician. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors classically prescribed in this setting can fail due to primary or acquired resistance or the necessity of drug withdrawal because of serious or moderate but chronic and deleterious adverse effects. Thus, the concept of redifferentiation strategy, which involves treating patients with one or more drugs capable of restoring radioiodine sensitivity for RAIR TC, has emerged. The area of redifferentiation strategy leads to the creation of new definitions of RAIR TC including persistent non radioiodine-avid patients and ‘true’ RAIR TC patients. The latter group presents a restored or increased radioiodine uptake in metastatic lesions but with no radiological response on conventional imaging, that is, progression of a metastatic disease, thus proving that they are ‘truly’ resistant to the radiation delivered by radioiodine. Unlike these patients, metastatic TC patients with restored radioiodine uptake offer the hope of prolonged remission or even cure of the disease as for radioiodine-avid metastatic TC. Here, we review the different redifferentiation strategies based on the underlying molecular mechanism leading to the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and radioiodine uptake reinduction, that is, by modulating signaling pathways, NIS transcription, NIS trafficking to the plasma membrane, NIS post-transcriptional regulation, by gene therapy and other potential strategies. We discuss clinical trials and promising preclinical data of potential future targets.
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Camille Buffet, Johanna Wassermann, Fabio Hecht, Laurence Leenhardt, Corinne Dupuy, Lionel Groussin, and Charlotte Lussey-Lepoutre
Gustavo Penna, Ileana G S Rubio, Ester Saraiva Brust, Juliana Cazarin, Fabio Hecht, Nina Ramalho Alkmim, Kamilla M A Brandão Rajão, and Helton Estrela Ramos
Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) combined with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a rare situation, and there is no well-established causal relationship. CH is a common congenital endocrine, while DTC occurring in childhood represents 0.4–3% of all malignancies at this stage of life. The association of CH with DTC could be related to dyshormonogenetic goiter (DHG) or developmental abnormalities. This review will explore the clinical features and the molecular mechanisms potentially associated with the appearance of DTC in CH: sporadic somatic driver mutations, chronic increase of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cell division cycle associated 8 (Borelain/CDC8) gene mutations, and in others genes associated with CH – either alone or associated with the mechanisms involved in dyshormonogenesis. There are some pitfalls in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in patients with CH with nodular goiter, as the proper cytological diagnosis of nodules of patients with dyshormonogenesis might be demanding due to the specific architectural and cytological appearance, which may lead to an erroneous interpretation of malignancy. The purpose of this article is to suggest an analytical framework that embraces the fundamental relationships between the various aspects of CH and CDT. In face of this scenario, the entire genetic and epigenetic context, the complex functioning, and cross talk of cell signaling may determine cellular mechanisms promoting both the maintenance of the differentiated state of the thyroid follicular cell and the disruption of its homeostasis leading to cancer. Whereas, the exact mechanisms for thyroid cancer development in CH remain to be elucidated.
Milena Simões Peixoto, Andressa de Vasconcelos e Souza, Iris Soares Andrade, Carolina de Carvalho el Giusbi, Caroline Coelho Faria, Fabio Hecht, Leandro Miranda-Alves, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires Carvalho, and Rodrigo S Fortunato
Breast cancer and thyroid dysfunctions have been associated for decades. Although many studies suggest a biological correlation, the mechanisms linking these two pathologies have not been elucidated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can oxidize lipids, proteins, and DNA molecules and may promote tumor initiation. Hence, we aimed at evaluating the mammary redox balance and genomic instability in a model of experimental hypothyroidism. Female Wistar rats were treated with 0.03% methimazole for 7 or 21 days to evaluate ROS generation, antioxidant enzyme activities, and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as genomic instability. After 7 days, lower catalase, GPX, and DUOX activities were detected in the breast of hypothyroid group compared to the control while the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) were higher. In addition, hypothyroid group showed an increase in γH2Ax/H2Ax ratio. Twenty-one days hypothyroid group had increased catalase and SOD activities, without significant differences between groups in the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and DNA damage. TSH-treated MCF10A cells showed a higher extracellular, intracellular, and mitochondrial ROS production. Additionally, greater DNA damage was observed in these cells, demonstrated by a higher comet tail DNA percentage and increased 53BP1 foci. Finally, we found that TSH treatment was not able to alter cell viability. The Genome Cancer Atlas (TGCA) data showed that high TSHR expression is associated with more invasive breast cancer types. In conclusion, we demonstrate that oxidative stress and DNA damage in breast are early events of experimental hypothyroidism. Moreover, high TSH levels induce oxidative stress and genomic instability in mammary cells.