The thyroid hormone 3,3′,5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) regulates growth, development, and differentiation processes in animals. These activities are mediated by the nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). Microarray analyses were performed previously to study the mechanism of regulation triggered by T3 treatment in hepatoma cell lines. The results showed that spondin 2 was regulated positively by T3. However, the underlying mechanism and the physiological role of T3 in the regulation of spondin 2 are not clear. To verify the microarray results, spondin 2 was further investigated using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting. After 48 h of T3 treatment in the HepG2–TRα1#1 cell line, spondin 2 mRNA and protein levels increased by 3.9- to 5.7-fold. Similar results were observed in thyroidectomized rats. To localize the regulatory region in spondin 2, we performed serial deletions of the promoter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The T3 response element on the spondin 2 promoter was localized in the −1104/−1034 or −984/−925 regions. To explore the effect of spondin 2 on cellular function, spondin 2 knockdown cell lines were established from Huh7 cells. Knockdown cells had higher migration ability and invasiveness compared with control cells. Conversely, spondin 2 overexpression in J7 cells led to lower migration ability and invasiveness compared with control cells. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that spondin 2 overexpression in some types of hepatocellular carcinomas is TR dependent. Together, these experimental findings suggest that spondin 2, which is regulated by T3, has an important role in cell invasion, cell migration, and tumor progression.
Chen-Hsin Liao, Shih-Chi Yeh, Ya-Hui Huang, Ruey-Nan Chen, Ming-Ming Tsai, Wei-Jan Chen, Hsiang-Cheng Chi, Pei-Ju Tai, Chia-Jung Liao, Sheng-Ming Wu, Wan-Li Cheng, Li-Mei Pai and Kwang-Huei Lin
Shih-Ping Cheng, Chien-Liang Liu, Ming-Jen Chen, Ming-Nan Chien, Ching-Hsiang Leung, Chi-Hsin Lin, Yi-Chiung Hsu and Jie-Jen Lee
CD74, the invariant chain of major histocompatibility complex class II, is also a receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). CD74 and MIF have been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in hematologic and solid tumors. In this study, we found that 60 and 65% of papillary thyroid cancers were positive for CD74 and MIF immunohistochemical staining respectively. Anaplastic thyroid cancer was negative for MIF, but mostly positive for CD74 expression. Normal thyroid tissue and follicular adenomas were negative for CD74 expression. CD74 expression in papillary thyroid cancer was associated with larger tumor size (P=0.043), extrathyroidal invasion (P=0.021), advanced TNM stage (P=0.006), and higher MACIS score (P=0.026). No clinicopathological parameter was associated with MIF expression. Treatment with anti-CD74 antibody in thyroid cancer cells inhibited cell growth, colony formation, cell migration and invasion, and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. In contrast, treatment with recombinant MIF induced an increase in cell invasion. Anti-CD74 treatment reduced AKT phosphorylation and stimulated AMPK activation. Our findings suggest that CD74 overexpression in thyroid cancer is associated with advanced tumor stage and may serve as a therapeutic target.
Yang-Hsiang Lin, Meng-Han Wu, Ya-Hui Huang, Chau-Ting Yeh, Hsiang-Cheng Chi, Chung-Ying Tsai, Wen-Yu Chuang, Chia-Jung Yu, I-Hsiao Chung, Ching-Ying Chen and Kwang-Huei Lin
Thyroid hormone (T3) and its receptor (TR) are involved in cancer progression. While deregulation of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression has been detected in many tumor types, the mechanisms underlying specific involvement of lncRNAs in tumorigenicity remain unclear. Experiments from the current study revealed negative regulation of BC200 expression by T3/TR. BC200 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and effective as an independent prognostic marker. BC200 promoted cell growth and tumor sphere formation, which was mediated via regulation of cell cycle-related genes and stemness markers. Moreover, BC200 protected cyclin E2 mRNA from degradation. Cell growth ability was repressed by T3, but partially enhanced upon BC200 overexpression. Mechanistically, BC200 directly interacted with cyclin E2 and promoted CDK2–cyclin E2 complex formation. Upregulation of cell cycle-related genes in hepatoma samples was positively correlated with BC200 expression. Our collective findings support the utility of a potential therapeutic strategy involving targeting of BC200 for the treatment of HCC.