Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical regulators of several physiological processes, which include development, differentiation and growth in virtually all tissues. In past decades, several studies have shown that changes in TH levels caused by thyroid dysfunction, disruption of deiodinases and/or thyroid hormone receptor (TR) expression in tumor cells, influence cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and invasion in a variety of neoplasms in a cell type-specific manner. The function of THs and TRs in neoplastic cell proliferation involves complex mechanisms that seem to be cell specific, exerting effects via genomic and nongenomic pathways, repressing or stimulating transcription factors, influencing angiogenesis and promoting invasiveness. Taken together, these observations indicate an important role of TH status in the pathogenesis and/or development of human neoplasia. Here, we aim to present an updated and comprehensive picture of the accumulated knowledge and the current understanding of the potential role of TH status on the different hallmarks of the neoplastic process.
Iuri Martin Goemann, Mirian Romitti, Erika L Souza Meyer, Simone Magagnin Wajner and Ana Luiza Maia
Iuri Martin Goemann, Vicente Rodrigues Marczyk, Mirian Romitti, Simone Magagnin Wajner and Ana Luiza Maia
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the regulation of several metabolic processes and the energy consumption of the organism. Their action is exerted primarily through interaction with nuclear receptors controlling the transcription of thyroid hormone-responsive genes. Proper regulation of TH levels in different tissues is extremely important for the equilibrium between normal cellular proliferation and differentiation. The iodothyronine deiodinases types 1, 2 and 3 are key enzymes that perform activation and inactivation of THs, thus controlling TH homeostasis in a cell-specific manner. As THs seem to exert their effects in all hallmarks of the neoplastic process, dysregulation of deiodinases in the tumoral context can be critical to the neoplastic development. Here, we aim at reviewing the deiodinases expression in different neoplasias and exploit the mechanisms by which they play an essential role in human carcinogenesis. TH modulation by deiodinases and other classical pathways may represent important targets with the potential to oppose the neoplastic process.