A major cause of paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma is germline mutation of the tumor suppressor genes SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). While many SDH missense/nonsense mutations have been identified, few large deletions have been described. We performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification deletion analysis in 126 point mutation-negative patients, and here we describe four novel deletions of SDHD and SDHC. Long-range PCR was used for the fine mapping of deletions. One patient had a 10 kb AluSg–AluSx-mediated deletion including SDHD exons 1 and 2, the entire TIMM8B gene, and deletion of exons of C11orf57. A second patient had a deletion of SDHD exons 1 and 2 and exon 1 of the TIMM8B gene. A third patient showed a deletion of exon 2 of SDHD, together with a 235 bp MIRb–Tensin gene insertion. In a fourth patient, a deletion of exons 5 and 6 of the SDHC gene was found, only the second SDHC deletion currently known. The deletions of the TIMM8B and C11orf57 genes are the first to be described, but do not appear to result in an additional phenotype in these patients. Four of the eight breakpoints occurred in Alu sequences and all three SDHD deletions showed an intron 2 breakpoint. This study underlines the fact that clinically relevant deletions may encompass neighboring genes, with the potential to modify phenotype. Gene deletions of SDHD and SDHC represent a substantial proportion of all mutations, and must be considered in paraganglioma patients shown to be negative for mutations by sequencing.
Jean-Pierre Bayley, Marjan M Weiss, Anneliese Grimbergen, Bernadette T J van Brussel, Frederik J Hes, Jeroen C Jansen, Senno Verhoef, Peter Devilee, Eleonora P Corssmit and Annette H J T Vriends
Hartmut P Neumann, William F Young Jr, Tobias Krauss, Jean-Pierre Bayley, Francesca Schiavi, Giuseppe Opocher, Carsten C Boedeker, Amit Tirosh, Frederic Castinetti, Juri Ruf, Dmitry Beltsevich, Martin Walz, Harald-Thomas Groeben, Ernst von Dobschuetz, Oliver Gimm, Nelson Wohllk, Marija Pfeifer, Delmar M Lourenço Jr, Mariola Peczkowska, Attila Patocs, Joanne Ngeow, Özer Makay, Nalini S Shah, Arthur Tischler, Helena Leijon, Gianmaria Pennelli, Karina Villar Gómez de las Heras, Thera P Links, Birke Bausch and Charis Eng
Although the authors of the present review have contributed to genetic discoveries in the field of pheochromocytoma research, we can legitimately ask whether these advances have led to improvements in the diagnosis and management of patients with pheochromocytoma. The answer to this question is an emphatic Yes! In the field of molecular genetics, the well-established axiom that familial (genetic) pheochromocytoma represents 10% of all cases has been overturned, with >35% of cases now attributable to germline disease-causing mutations. Furthermore, genetic pheochromocytoma can now be grouped into five different clinical presentation types in the context of the ten known susceptibility genes for pheochromocytoma-associated syndromes. We now have the tools to diagnose patients with genetic pheochromocytoma, identify germline mutation carriers and to offer gene-informed medical management including enhanced surveillance and prevention. Clinically, we now treat an entire family of tumors of the paraganglia, with the exact phenotype varying by specific gene. In terms of detection and classification, simultaneous advances in biochemical detection and imaging localization have taken place, and the histopathology of the paraganglioma tumor family has been revised by immunohistochemical-genetic classification by gene-specific antibody immunohistochemistry. Treatment options have also been substantially enriched by the application of minimally invasive and adrenal-sparing surgery. Finally and most importantly, it is now widely recognized that patients with genetic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes should be treated in specialized centers dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of this rare neoplasm.