Insulin release index (IRI) based on 72-h fasting test has been used for the definitive diagnosis of insulinoma; however, hospitalization and subsequent costs contribute to the disadvantage of IRI. Therefore, a simple and cost-effective screening procedure for the diagnosis of insulinoma for outpatients are crucially needed. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been widely used for monitoring high level of glucose in diabetic patients. The aim of the study is to determine the potential contribution or implementation of CGM in the screening of the insulinoma. We performed a single-center prospective study with the demographics and laboratory data including 28 patients with the pathological diagnosis of insulinoma and 25 patients with functional hypoglycemia as control group. The analysis showed that areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.914. The CV cutoff point was 19% with the Youden 62.1%, the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 82.1 and 80%, respectively. In patients with CV greater than the median, more than 60% of insulinomas were located in the head of the pancreas; most Ki-67 values were more than 2% and when compared with the group with CV smaller than the median, the average tumor size was 2.7 times larger. In conclusion, CGM can be used as a valuable tool in not only monitoring high glucose levels in diabetic patients but also identifying the etiology of insulinoma. CV greater than 19% can be highly effective for the screening of insulinoma in outpatients.
Jingyuan Ma, Xinyu Huang, Jungong Zhao, Jingyi Lu, Wei Lu, Yuqian Bao, Jian Zhou, and Junfeng Han
Xiao-hui Luo, Jian-zhou Liu, Bo Wang, Qun-li Men, Yu-quan Ju, Feng-yan Yin, Chao Zheng, and Wei Li
Insights into the mechanisms by which key factors stimulate cell growth under androgen-depleted conditions is a premise to the development of effective treatments with clinically significant activity in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Herein, we report that, the expression of Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14), a master transcription factor in the regulation of lipid metabolism, was significantly induced in castration-insensitive PCa cells and tumor tissues from a mouse xenograft model of CRPC. KLF14 upregulation in PCa cells, which was stimulated upstream by oxidative stress, was dependent on multiple pathways including PI3K/AKT, p42/p44 MAPK, AMPK and PKC pathways. By means of ectopic overexpression and genetic inactivation, we further show that KLF14 promoted cell growth via positive regulation of the antioxidant response under androgen-depleted conditions. Mechanistically, KLF14 coupled to p300 and CBP to enhance the transcriptional activation of HMOX1, the gene encoding the antioxidative enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) that is one of the most important mechanisms of cell adaptation to stress. Transient knockdown of HMOX1 is sufficient to overcome KLF14 overexpression-potentiated PCa cell growth under androgen-depleted conditions. From a pharmacological standpoint, in vivo administration of ZnPPIX (a specific inhibitor of HO-1) effectively attenuates castration-resistant progression in the mouse xenograft model, without changing KLF14 level. Together, these results provide comprehensive insight into the KLF14-dependent regulation of antioxidant response and subsequent pathogenesis of castration resistance and indicate that interventions targeting the KLF14/HO-1 adaptive mechanism should be further explored for CRPC treatment.