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Hoo Kyun Choi, Jin Won Yang, Sang Hee Roh, Chang Yeob Han and Keon Wook Kang

Acquired resistance to tamoxifen (TAM) is a serious therapeutic problem in breast cancer patients. The transition from chemotherapy-responsive breast cancer cells to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is mainly accompanied by the increased expression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs). In this study, it was found that TAM-resistant MCF-7 (TAMR-MCF-7) cells expressed higher levels of MRP2 than control MCF-7 cells. Molecular analyses using MRP2 gene promoters supported the involvement of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) in MRP2 overexpression in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Although CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β was overexpressed continuously in TAMR-MCF-7 cells, this might not be responsible for the transcriptional activation of the MRP2 gene. In addition, the basal activities of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) were higher in the TAMR-MCF-7 cells than in the control cells. The inhibition of PI3-kinase significantly reduced both the PXR activity and MRP2 expression in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Overall, MRP2 induction plays a role in the additional acquisition of chemotherapy resistance in TAM-resistant breast cancer.

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Hoo Kyun Choi, Sang Hee Roh, Hyung Gyoun Kim, Eun Hee Han, Hye Gwang Jeong and Keon Wook Kang

Both the functional loss of p53 and the overexpression of aromatase are important for the progression of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Here, we found that aromatase expression was up-regulated in primary cultures of mammary epithelial cells (p53Δ 5,6 MEC) isolated from mice with a defect in exons 5 and 6 of the p53 gene. Aromatase basal activity and expression levels were significantly increased in p53Δ 5,6 MEC when compared with wild-type MEC. Reporter gene activity in p53Δ 5,6 MEC transfected with the aromatase promoter or the cAMP-responsive element (CRE) minimal promoter was higher than wild-type MEC. p53 inactivation increased both Ser133-phosphorylated CRE-binding protein (CREB) and the nuclear accumulation of CREB. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or Src tyrosine kinase blocked aromatase gene transactivation and CREB activation in the p53Δ 5,6 MEC. These results support the hypothesis that a genetic defect in the function of p53 enhances the expression of aromatase via ERK or Src activation in MEC, which suggests that aromatase expression is closely related to the p53 status in MEC.

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Ji Won Kim, Dharmendra K. Yadav, Soo Jin Kim, Moo-Yeol Lee, Jung-Min Park, Bum Seok Kim, Mi-hyun Kim, Hyeung-geun Park and Keon Wook Kang

GV1001, a 16-amino acid fragment of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT), has been developed as an injectable formulation of cancer vaccine. Here, we revealed for the first time that GV1001 is a novel ligand for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR). The docking prediction for GV1001 against GnRHR showed high binding affinity. Binding of GV1001 to GnRHR stimulated the Gαs-coupled cAMP signaling pathway and antagonized Gαq-coupled Ca2+ release by leuprolide acetate (LA), a GnRHR agonist. Repeated injection of GV1001 attenuated both serum testosterone level and seminal vesicle weight via desensitization of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We then tested whether GV1001 has an inhibitory effect on tumor growth of LNCaP cells, androgen receptor–positive human prostate cancer (PCa) cells. GV1001 significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in LNCaP-implanted xenografts. Interestingly, mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase2 and matrix metalloproteinase9 were suppressed by GV1001, but not by LA. Moreover, GV1001 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of PCa cells and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that GV1001 functions as a biased GnRHR ligand to selectively stimulate the Gαs/cAMP pathway, with anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects on human PCa.

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Ji Won Kim, Dharmendra K Yadav, Soo Jin Kim, Moo-Yeol Lee, Jung-Min Park, Bum Seok Kim, Mi-hyun Kim, Hyeung-geun Park and Keon Wook Kang

GV1001, a 16-amino acid fragment of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT), has been developed as an injectable formulation of cancer vaccine. Here, we revealed for the first time that GV1001 is a novel ligand for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR). The docking prediction for GV1001 against GnRHR showed high binding affinity. Binding of GV1001 to GnRHR stimulated the Gαs-coupled cAMP signaling pathway and antagonized Gαq-coupled Ca2+ release by leuprolide acetate (LA), a GnRHR agonist. Repeated injection of GV1001 attenuated both serum testosterone level and seminal vesicle weight via desensitization of hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. We then tested whether GV1001 has an inhibitory effect on tumor growth of LNCaP cells, androgen receptor–positive human prostate cancer (PCa) cells. GV1001 significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in LNCaP-implanted xenografts. Interestingly, mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 were suppressed by GV1001, but not by LA. Moreover, GV1001 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of PCa cells and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that GV1001 functions as a biased GnRHR ligand to selectively stimulate the Gαs/cAMP pathway, with anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects on human PCa.

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Martin K Bakht, Iulian Derecichei, Yinan Li, Rosa-Maria Ferraiuolo, Mark J Dunning, So Won Oh, Abdulkadir Hussein, Hyewon Youn, Keith F Stringer, Chang Wook Jeong, Gi Jeong Cheon, Cheol Kwak, Keon Wook Kang, Alastair Lamb, Yuzhuo Wang, Xuesen Dong and Lisa Porter

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in most prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPC) cells and acts as a target for molecular imaging. However, some case reports indicate that PSMA-targeted imaging could be ineffectual for delineation of neuroendocrine (NE) prostate cancer (NEPC) lesions due to the suppression of the PSMA gene (FOLH1). These same reports suggest that targeting somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) could be an alternative diagnostic target for NEPC patients. This study evaluates the correlation between expression of FOLH1, NEPC marker genes and SSTR2. We evaluated the transcript abundance for FOLH1 and SSTR2 genes as well as NE markers across 956 tumors. A significant suppression of FOLH1 in NEPC patient samples and AdPC samples with high expression of NE marker genes was observed. We also investigated protein alterations of PSMA and SSTR2 in an NE-induced cell line derived by hormone depletion and lineage plasticity by loss of p53. PSMA is suppressed following NE induction and cellular plasticity in p53-deficient NEPC model. The PSMA-suppressed cells have more colony formation ability and resistance to enzalutamide treatment. Conversely, SSTR2 was only elevated following hormone depletion. In 18 NEPC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models we find a significant suppression of FOLH1 and amplification of SSTR2 expression. Due to the observed FOLH1-supressed signature of NEPC, this study cautions on the reliability of using PMSA as a target for molecular imaging of NEPC. The observed elevation of SSTR2 in NEPC supports the possible ability of SSTR2-targeted imaging for follow-up imaging of low-PSMA patients and monitoring for NEPC development.

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Martin K Bakht, Iulian Derecichei, Yinan Li, Rosa-Maria Ferraiuolo, Mark Dunning, So Won Oh, Abdulkadir Hussein, Hyewon Youn, Keith F Stringer, Chang Wook Jeong, Gi Jeong Cheon, Cheol Kwak, Keon Wook Kang, Alastair D Lamb, Yuzhuo Wang, Xuesen Dong and Lisa A Porter

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in most prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPC) cells and acts as a target for molecular imaging. However, some case reports indicate that PSMA-targeted imaging could be ineffectual for delineation of neuroendocrine (NE) prostate cancer (NEPC) lesions due to the suppression of the PSMA gene (FOLH1). These same reports suggest that targeting somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) could be an alternative diagnostic target for NEPC patients. This study evaluates the correlation between expression of FOLH1, NEPC marker genes and SSTR2. We evaluated the transcript abundance for FOLH1 and SSTR2 genes as well as NE markers across 909 tumors. A significant suppression of FOLH1 in NEPC patient samples and AdPC samples with high expression of NE marker genes was observed. We also investigated protein alterations of PSMA and SSTR2 in an NE-induced cell line derived by hormone depletion and lineage plasticity by loss of p53. PSMA is suppressed following NE induction and cellular plasticity in p53-deficient NEPC model. The PSMA-suppressed cells have more colony formation ability and resistance to enzalutamide treatment. Conversely, SSTR2 was only elevated following hormone depletion. In 18 NEPC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models we find a significant suppression of FOLH1 and amplification of SSTR2 expression. Due to the observed FOLH1-supressed signature of NEPC, this study cautions on the reliability of using PMSA as a target for molecular imaging of NEPC. The observed elevation of SSTR2 in NEPC supports the possible ability of SSTR2-targeted imaging for follow-up imaging of low PSMA patients and monitoring for NEPC development.