Distant metastases from thyroid cancer of follicular origin are uncommon. Treatment includes levothyroxine administration, focal treatment modalities with surgery, external radiation therapy and thermal ablation, and radioiodine in patients with uptake of 131I in their metastases. Two-thirds of distant metastases become refractory to radioiodine at some point, and when there is a significant tumor burden and documented progression on imaging, a treatment with a kinase inhibitor may provide benefits.
Amandine Berdelou, Livia Lamartina, Michele Klain, Sophie Leboulleux, Martin Schlumberger and on behalf of the TUTHTYREF Network
Livia Lamartina, Sophie Leboulleux, Marie Terroir, Dana Hartl and Martin Schlumberger
Low-risk papillary cancers, which represent the vast majority of thyroid cancers diagnosed today, do not require aggressive treatment or follow-up. Initial treatment consists of a total thyroidectomy without prophylactic lymph node dissection. A hemithyroidectomy is an alternative in some patients with an intrathyroidal tumor and with a normal contralateral lobe at pre-operative neck ultrasonography. The use of post-operative radioiodine should be restricted to selected patients. Follow-up at 6–18 months is based on serum thyroglobulin (Tg), Tg-antibody determination and neck ultrasonography. In the absence of any abnormality (excellent response to treatment), the risk of recurrence is extremely low and follow-up may consist of serum TSH monitoring that is maintained in the normal range, and a Tg and Tg-antibody titer determination every year. There is no need for referral to a specialized center. In patients with detectable serum Tg or detectable Tg antibodies, the trend over time of these markers on levothyroxine treatment will dictate subsequent follow-up: a decreasing trend is reassuring, but an increasing trend should lead to imaging, starting with neck ultrasonography.