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Maria Riedmeier, Lester D R Thompson, Carlos Augusto Fernandes Molina, Boris Decarolis, Christoph Härtel, Paul-G Schlegel, Martin Fassnacht, and Verena Wiegering

Histopathological differentiation in pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma (pACC) is difficult and clinical prediction and stratification scores are not evaluated yet. Therefore, this review aims to summarize current evidence on the value and accuracy of the two commonly used scoring systems (Weiss/Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP)) pACC. On this base, one might be able to evaluate if patients may benefit from a unique scoring system. For this, we performed a systematic review of the published literature and included 128 patients in our analysis. The majority (72%) of the pACCs had a good clinical course. The follow-up time ranged from 0 to 420 months with a mean age of 5.6 years at diagnosis. Patients with a good clinical course were younger (mean 4.8 years) than patients with a poor outcome (mean 7.6 years). Comparing the two scoring systems, the specificity of the Weiss score was very low (25%), whereas the sensitivity was 100%. According to the AFIP score, specificity (77%) was higher than the Weiss score, whereas the sensitivity of the AFIP score was minimal lower with 92%. Age differences were recognizable as the specificity was lower in infants <4 years (20%) than in older children (32%). In contrast, the specificity of the AFIP score was higher in infants <4 years (82%) than in older age groups (76%). Summarizing our results, we could show that the Weiss score is not a suitable tool for the prediction of malignancy in pACC in comparison with the AFIP score, but further efforts may seek to ensure early and accurate stratification through augmented scoring.