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Tae-Hwan Kim, Mi Yeon Lee, Sung Min Jin, and Sang Hyuk Lee

The impact of serum thyroid hormone levels on thyroid cancer risk is unclear. Some studies reported that elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is associated with higher risk for incidence of thyroid cancer, but other studies reported no relationship. We conducted a large cohort study in 164,596 South Korean men and women who were free of thyroid cancer at baseline and underwent health examination with hormone levels of thyroid function. A parametric proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. During 2,277,749.78 person-years of follow-up, 1280 incident thyroid cancers were identified (men = 593, women = 687). Among men, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for thyroid cancer comparing low levels of TSH with normal levels of TSH was 2.95 (1.67–5.23), whereas the corresponding HR (95% CI) in women was 1.5 (0.88–2.55). High levels of free T4 and free T3 were also associated with incident thyroid cancer in both men and women. In clinical implication, overt hyperthyroidism is associated with thyroid cancer in both men and women. Within the euthyroid range, the highest tertile of TSH was associated with a lower risk of thyroid cancer than the lowest TSH tertile and the highest FT4 tertile was associated with a higher risk of thyroid cancer than the lowest FT4 tertile in both men and women. Our finding indicates that low levels of TSH and high levels of FT4, even within the normal range, were associated with an increased risk of incident thyroid cancer.

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Yeon A Choi, Ja Seung Koo, Jeong Su Park, Mi Young Park, Ae Lee Jeong, Ki-Sook Oh, and Young Yang

Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) stimulates the proliferation of various cancer cells, and 17β-estradiol (E2) enhances the proliferation of breast cancer cells. E2 activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), stimulating the MEK1/2 and PI3K pathways, and CIP2A expression is increased by the MEK1/2-induced transcription factor ETS1. It is possible for E2 to increase CIP2A expression. This study examined whether E2 could increase CIP2A expression and whether CIP2A is highly expressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer tissues. E2 increased CIP2A expression at the translational level in a c-MYC-independent manner in MCF-7 cells. E2-enhanced proliferation was impaired without CIP2A expression. E2-stimulated EGFR activated the MAPK and PI3K pathways, which converged to activate p70 S6 kinase (S6K). Phosphorylation at all the three phosphorylation sites (S424/T421, T229, and T389) on S6K was required for the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), which was responsible for the increase in CIP2A translation. Furthermore, CIP2A expression was higher in ER-positive tissues than in ER-negative tissues. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that CIP2A is a key factor in E2-enhanced proliferation and that estrogen regulates CIP2A expression by non-genomic action through EGFR.