Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis. Local and distant recurrences occur in a subset of tumors classified as ‘aggressive’ ACC (aACC), as opposed to ‘non-aggressive’ ACC (naACC). In this study, we investigated whether tissue and serum microRNAs (miRNAs) are predictive of ACC prognosis. Tissue miRNA expression profiles were determined using microarrays in a test series of six adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), six naACCs, and six aACCs. Eight miRNAs were selected for further validation by quantitative RT-PCR (ten ACAs, nine naACCs, nine aACCs, and three normal adrenals). Serum levels of five miRNAs were measured in samples from 56 subjects (19 healthy controls (HC), 14 ACA, nine naACC, and 14 aACC patients). MiR-195 and miR-335 levels were significantly decreased in both tumor and serum samples of ACC patients relative to ACA patients or HC. MiR-139-5p and miR-376a levels were significantly increased in aACC compared with naACC patients in tumor samples only. Tissue miR-483-5p was markedly upregulated in a majority of ACC compared with ACA patients or HC, but most importantly, serum miR-483-5p was detected only in aACC patients. High circulating levels of miR-483-5p or low circulating levels of miR-195 were associated with both shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.0004 and P=0.0014 respectively) and shorter overall survival (P=0.0005 and P=0.0086 respectively). In conclusion, this study reports for the first time that circulating miR-483-5p and miR-195 are promising noninvasive biomarkers with a highly specific prognostic value for the clinical outcome of ACC patients.
O Chabre, R Libé, G Assie, O Barreau, J Bertherat, X Bertagna, J-J Feige and N Cherradi
F Castinetti, F Albarel, F Archambeaud, J Bertherat, B Bouillet, P Buffier, C Briet, B Cariou, Ph Caron, O Chabre, Ph Chanson, C Cortet, C Do Cao, D Drui, M Haissaguerre, S Hescot, F Illouz, E Kuhn, N Lahlou, E Merlen, V Raverot, S Smati, B Verges and F Borson-Chazot
The management of cancer patients has changed due to the considerably more frequent use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs). However, the use of ICPI has a risk of side effects, particularly endocrine toxicity. Since the indications for ICPI are constantly expanding due to their efficacy, it is important that endocrinologists and oncologists know how to look for this type of toxicity and how to treat it when it arises. In view of this, the French Endocrine Society initiated the formulation of a consensus document on ICPI-related endocrine toxicity. In this paper, we will introduce data on the general pathophysiology of endocrine toxicity, and we will then outline expert opinion focusing primarily on methods for screening, management and monitoring for endocrine side effects in patients treated by ICPI. We will then look in turn at endocrinopathies that are induced by ICPI including dysthyroidism, hypophysitis, primary adrenal insufficiency and fulminant diabetes. In each chapter, expert opinion will be given on the diagnosis, management and monitoring for each complication. These expert opinions will also discuss the methodology for categorizing these side effects in oncology using ‘common terminology criteria for adverse events’ (CTCAE) and the difficulties in applying this to endocrine side effects in the case of these anti-cancer therapies. This is shown in particular by certain recommendations that are used for other side effects (high-dose corticosteroids, contraindicated in ICPI for example) and that cannot be considered as appropriate in the management of endocrine toxicity, as it usually does not require ICPI withdrawal or high-dose glucocorticoid intake.