The estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates a large number of genes in many different target tissues and is important in the development and progression of breast cancer. ERα-mediated transcription is a complex process regulated at many different levels. The interplay between ligand, receptor, DNA sequence, cofactors, chromatin context, and post-translational modifications culminates in transcriptional regulation by ERα. Recent technological advances have allowed the identification of ERα target genes on a genome-wide scale. In this review, we provide an overview of the progress made in our understanding of the different levels of regulation mediated by ERα. We discuss the recent advances in the identification of the ERα-binding sites and target gene network and their clinical applications.
Willem-Jan Welboren, Fred C G J Sweep, Paul N Span and Hendrik G Stunnenberg
Anika Nagelkerke, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Johan Bussink, Fred C G J Sweep, Maxime P Look, John A Foekens, John W M Martens and Paul N Span
Lysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a member of the LAMP-family of proteins, which are involved in the process of autophagy. Autophagy is induced by tamoxifen in breast cancer cells and may contribute to tamoxifen resistance. In this study, the significance of LAMP3 for tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer was examined. The methods employed included use of clonogenic assays to assess the survival of MCF7 breast cancer cells with LAMP3 knockdown after tamoxifen treatment and of quantitative real-time PCR of LAMP3 to evaluate its predictive value for first-line tamoxifen treatment in patients with advanced breast cancer. Results show that tamoxifen treatment of MCF7 cells induced LAMP3 mRNA expression. LAMP3 knockdown in these cells increased tamoxifen sensitivity. Evaluation of expression of the autophagy markers, LC3B and p62, after LAMP3 knockdown showed increased expression levels, indicating that cells with LAMP3 knockdown have a suppressed ability to complete the autophagic process. In addition, knockdown of autophagy-associated genes resulted in sensitization to tamoxifen. Next, tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 cells were cultured. These cells had a sevenfold higher LAMP3 mRNA expression, showed elevated basal autophagy levels, and could be significantly resensitized to tamoxifen by LAMP3 knockdown. In patients treated with first-line tamoxifen for advanced disease (n=304), high LAMP3 mRNA expression was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P=0.003) and shorter post-relapse overall survival (P=0.040), also in multivariate analysis. Together, these results indicate that LAMP3 contributes to tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. Tamoxifen-resistant cells are resensitized to tamoxifen by the knockdown of LAMP3. Therefore, LAMP3 may be clinically relevant to countering tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer patients.