An increased association between neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas (GEP-NET) and other second primary malignancies has been suggested. We determined whether there is indeed an increased risk for second primary malignancies in GEP-NET patients compared with an age- and sex-matched control group of patients with identical malignancies. The series comprised 243 men and 216 women, diagnosed with a GEP-NET between 2000 and 2009 in a tertiary referral center. The timeline, before-at-after diagnosis, and the type of other malignancies were studied using person-year methodology. Poisson distributions were used for testing statistical significance. All data were cross-checked with the Dutch National Cancer Registry. Out of 459 patients with GEP-NET, 67 (13.7%) had a second primary cancer diagnosis: 25 previous cancers (5.4%), 13 synchronous cancers (2.8%), and 29 metachronous cancers (6.3%). The most common types of second primary cancer were breast cancer (n=10), colorectal cancer (n=8), melanoma (n=6), and prostate cancer (n=5). The number of patients with a cancer history was lower than expected, although not significant (n=25 vs n=34.5). The diagnosis of synchronous cancers, mainly colorectal tumors, was higher than expected (n=13 vs n=6.1, P<0.05). Metachronous tumors occurred as frequent as expected (n=29 vs n=25.2, NS). In conclusion, our results are in contrast to previous studies and demonstrate that only the occurrence of synchronous second primary malignancies, mainly colorectal cancers, is increased in GEP-NET patients compared with the general population.
Kimberly Kamp, Ronald A M Damhuis, Richard A Feelders and Wouter W de Herder
Wouter T Zandee, Kimberly Kamp, Roxanne C van Adrichem, Richard A Feelders and Wouter W de Herder
The treatment of hormone hypersecretory syndromes caused by neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be a major challenge. NETs originating from the small intestine often secrete serotonin causing flushing, diarrhea and valve fibrosis, leading to dehydration or heart failure in severe cases. NETs from the pancreas can secrete a wider variety of hormones, like insulin, glucagon and gastrin leading to distinct clinical syndromes. Historically mortality in patients with functioning NETs was high due to the complications caused by the hypersecretion of hormones. This has been reduced with several drugs: proton-pump inhibitors decrease acid secretion caused by gastrinomas. Somatostatin analogs can inhibit the secretion of multiple hormones and these are now the cornerstone for treating patients with a gastroenteropancreatic NET. However, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs and everolimus can also decrease symptoms of hypersecretion and increase progression-free survival. Several factors affect the survival in patients with a functioning NET. Complications of hypersecretion negatively impact survival; however, secretion of hormones is also often a sign of a well-differentiated NET and due to the symptoms, functioning NETs can be detected in an earlier stage suggesting a positive effect on prognosis. The effect on survival is also dependent on the type of hormone being secreted. This review aims to study the effect of hormone secretion on the prognosis of NETs with the contemporary treatments options available today.
Anela Blažević, Johannes Hofland, Leo J Hofland, Richard A Feelders and Wouter W de Herder
Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are neoplasms characterized by their ability to secrete biogenic amines and peptides. These cause distinct clinical pathology including carcinoid syndrome, marked by diarrhoea and flushing, as well as fibrosis, notably mesenteric fibrosis. Mesenteric fibrosis often results in significant morbidity by causing intestinal obstruction, oedema and ischaemia. Although advancements have been made to alleviate symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and prolong the survival of patients with SI-NETs, therapeutic options for patients with mesenteric fibrosis are still limited. As improved insight in the complex pathogenesis of mesenteric fibrosis is key to the development of new therapies, we evaluated the literature for known and putative mediators of fibrosis in SI-NETs. In this review, we discuss the tumour microenvironment, growth factors and signalling pathways involved in the complex process of fibrosis development and tumour progression in SI-NETs, in order to elucidate potential new avenues for scientific research and therapies to improve the management of patients suffering from the complications of mesenteric fibrosis.
Kimberly Kamp, Brenda Gumz, Richard A Feelders, Dik J Kwekkeboom, Gregory Kaltsas, Frederico P Costa and Wouter W de Herder
Although 177Lu-octreotate is an effective treatment for patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), some patients will fail or develop disease progression necessitating further treatment. We examined whether the safety and efficacy of everolimus after prior treatment with 177Lu-octreotate is different from the published safety profile of everolimus in GEP-NETs. In this multicenter study, 24 GEP-NET patients were included. Adverse events were assessed according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. Tumor response was measured according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.0. Major clinical adverse events (grade 3 or 4) during treatment with everolimus were hyperglycemia (20.8%), fatigue (8.3%), thrombocytopenia (8.3%), and elevated alanine transaminase levels (8.3%). By radiological review, there were four partial responses (16.7%), five patients (62.5%) with stable disease, and three patients (12.5%) with progressive disease. For two patients (8.3%), no data on tumor response were available. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 13.1 months (95% CI, 11.5–21.2). Median PFS of the current study was longer when compared with the RADIANT-3 trial (13.1 vs 11.4 months) and shorter when compared with the RADIANT-1 trial (13.1 vs 16.7 months). In conclusion, the safety profile of everolimus is not influenced by previous treatment with peptide receptor radiotherapy.
Tessa Brabander, Wouter A van der Zwan, Jaap J M Teunissen, Boen L R Kam, Wouter W de Herder, Richard A Feelders, Eric P Krenning and Dik J Kwekkeboom
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-DOTATATE) is a treatment with good results in patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEPNETs). However, there are some pitfalls that should be taken into consideration when evaluating the treatment response after PRRT. 354 Dutch patients with GEPNETs who were treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE between March 2000 and December 2011 were retrospectively selected. Liver function parameters and chromogranin A were measured before each therapy and in follow-up. Anatomical imaging was performed before therapy and in follow-up. An increase in aminotransferases by ≥20% compared to baseline was observed in 83 of 351 patients (24%). In patients with an objective response (OR) and stable disease (SD) this increase was observed in 71/297 (24%) and in patients with progressive disease (PD) it was observed in 12/54 patients (22%). An increase in chromogranin A by ≥20% compared to baseline was observed in 76 patients (29%). This was present in 34% of patients who eventually had PD and 27% of patients who had OR/SD. In 70% of patients this tumour marker returned to baseline levels after therapy. An increase in liver enzymes and chromogranin A is not uncommon after PRRT. In the vast majority of patients this will resolve in follow-up. Clinicians should be aware that these changes may occur due to radiation-induced inflammation or disease progression and that repeated measurements over time are necessary to differentiate between the two.
Aura D Herrera-Martínez, Leo J Hofland, María A Gálvez Moreno, Justo P Castaño, Wouter W de Herder and Richard A Feelders
Some biomarkers for functioning and non-functioning neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are currently available. Despite their application in clinical practice, results should be interpreted cautiously. Considering the variable sensitivity and specificity of these parameters, there is an unmet need for novel biomarkers to improve diagnosis and predict patient outcome. Nowadays, several new biomarkers are being evaluated and may become future tools for the management of NENs. These biomarkers include (1) peptides and growth factors; (2) DNA and RNA markers based on genomics analysis, for example, the so-called NET test, which has been developed for analyzing gene transcripts in circulating blood; (3) circulating tumor/endothelial/progenitor cells or cell-free tumor DNA, which represent minimally invasive methods that would provide additional information for monitoring treatment response and (4) improved imaging techniques with novel radiolabeled somatostatin analogs or peptides. Below we summarize some future directions in the development of novel diagnostic and predictive/prognostic biomarkers in NENs. This review is focused on circulating and selected tissue markers.
Anela Blažević, Wouter T Zandee, Gaston J H Franssen, Johannes Hofland, Marie-Louise F van Velthuysen, Leo J Hofland, Richard A Feelders and Wouter W de Herder
Mesenteric fibrosis (MF) surrounding a mesenteric mass is a hallmark feature of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs). Since this can induce intestinal obstruction, oedema and ischaemia, prophylactic resection of the primary tumour and mesenteric mass is often recommended. This study assessed the predictors for mesenteric metastasis and fibrosis and the effect of MF and palliative surgery on survival. A retrospective analysis of 559 patients with pathologically proven SI-NET and available CT-imaging data was performed. Clinical characteristics, presence of mesenteric mass and fibrosis on CT imaging and the effect of palliative abdominal surgery on overall survival were assessed. We found that MF was present in 41.4%. Older age, 5-HIAA excretion ≥67 μmol/24 h, serum CgA ≥121.5 μg/L and a mesenteric mass ≥27.5 mm were independent predictors of MF. In patients ≤52 years, mesenteric mass was less often found in women than in men (39% vs 64%, P = 0.002). Corrected for age, tumour grade, CgA and liver metastasis, MF was not a prognostic factor for overall survival. In patients undergoing palliative surgery, metastasectomy of mesenteric mass or prophylactic surgery did not result in survival benefit. In conclusion, we confirmed known predictors of MF and mesenteric mass and suggest a role for sex hormones as women ≤52 years have less often a mesenteric mass. Furthermore, the presence of MF has no effect on survival in a multivariate analysis, and we found no benefit of metastasectomy of mesenteric mass or prophylactic surgery on overall survival.
Peter M van Koetsveld, Giovanni Vitale, Richard A Feelders, Marlijn Waaijers, Diana M Sprij-Mooij, Ronald R de Krijger, Ernst-Jan M Speel, Johannes Hofland, Steven W J Lamberts, Wouter W de Herder and Leo J Hofland
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive tumor with very poor prognosis. Novel medical treatment opportunities are required. We investigated the effects of interferon-β (IFN-β), alone or in combination with mitotane, on cell growth and cortisol secretion in primary cultures of 13 human ACCs, three adrenal hyperplasias, three adrenal adenomas, and in two ACC cell lines. Moreover, the interrelationship between the effects of IGF2 and IFN-β was evaluated. Mitotane inhibited cell total DNA content/well (representing cell number) in 7/11 (IC50: 38±9.2 μM) and cortisol secretion in 5/5 ACC cultures (IC50: 4.5±0.1 μM). IFN-β reduced cell number in 10/11 (IC50: 83±18 IU/ml) and cortisol secretion in 5/5 ACC cultures (IC50: 7.3±1.5 IU/ml). The effect of IFN-β on cell number included the induction of apoptosis. IFN-β strongly inhibited mRNA expression of STAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and CYP11B1. Mitotane and IFN-β induced an additive inhibitory effect on cell number and cortisol secretion. IGF2 (10 nM) inhibited apoptosis and increased cell number and cortisol secretion. These effects were counteracted by IFN-β treatment. Finally, IFN-β inhibited IGF2 secretion and mRNA expression. In conclusion, IFN-β is a potent inhibitor of ACC cell growth in human primary ACC cultures, partially mediated by an inhibition of the effects of IGF2, as well as its production. The increased sensitivity of ACC cells to mitotane induced by treatment with IFN-β may open the opportunity for combined treatment regimens with lower mitotane doses. The inhibition of the expression of steroidogenic enzymes by IFN-β is a novel mechanism that may explain its inhibitory effect on cortisol production.
Aura D Herrera-Martínez, Rosanna van den Dungen, Fadime Dogan-Oruc, Peter M van Koetsveld, Michael D Culler, Wouter W de Herder, Raúl M Luque, Richard A Feelders and Leo J Hofland
Control of symptoms related to hormonal hypersecretion by functioning neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is challenging. New therapeutic options are required. Since novel in vitro tumor models seem to better mimic the tumor in vivo conditions, we aimed to study the effect of somatostatin and dopamine receptor agonists (octreotide and cabergoline, respectively) and novel somatostatin-dopamine chimeric multi-receptor drugs (BIM-065, BIM-23A760) using 2D (monolayer) and 3D (spheroids) cultures. Dose–response studies in 2D and 3D human pancreatic NET cell cultures (BON-1 and QGP-1) were performed under serum-containing and serum-deprived conditions. Cell proliferation, somatostatin and dopamine receptor expression (SSTs and D2R), apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase, as well as serotonin and chromogranin A (CgA) release were assessed. The following results were obtained. 3D cultures of BON-1/QGP-1 allowed better cell survival than 2D cultures in serum-deprived conditions. SSTs and D2R mRNA levels were higher in the 3D model vs 2D model. Octreotide/cabergoline/BIM-065/BIM-23A760 treatment did not affect cell growth or spheroid size. In BON-1 2D-cultures, only BIM-23A760 significantly inhibited CgA release –this effect being more pronounced in 3D cultures. In BON-1 2D cultures, cabergoline/BIM-065/BIM-23A760 treatment decreased serotonin release (maximal effect up to 40%), being this effect again more potent in 3D cultures (up to 67% inhibition; with BIM-23A760 having the most potent effects). In QGP-1, cabergoline/BIM-065 treatment decreased serotonin release only in the 3D model. In conclusion, cultures of NET 3D spheroids represent a promising method for evaluating cell proliferation and secretion in NET cell-line models. Compared to 2D models, 3D models grow relatively serum independent. In 3D model, SST-D2R multi-receptor targeting drugs inhibit CgA and serotonin secretion, but not NET cell growth.
Maria Cristina De Martino, Peter M van Koetsveld, Richard A Feelders, Diana Sprij-Mooij, Marlijn Waaijers, Steven W J Lamberts, Wouter W de Herder, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello and Leo J Hofland
Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) need new treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the mTOR inhibitors sirolimus and temsirolimus on human ACC cell growth and cortisol production. In H295, HAC15, and SW13 cells, we have evaluated mTOR, IGF2, and IGF1 receptor expressions; the effects of sirolimus and temsirolimus on cell growth; and the effects of sirolimus on apoptosis, cell cycle, and cortisol production. Moreover, the effects of sirolimus on basal and IGF2-stimulated H295 cell colony growth and on basal and IGF1-stimulated phospho-AKT, phospho-S6K1, and phospho-ERK in H295 and SW13 were studied. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of combination treatment of sirolimus with an IGF2-neutralizing antibody. We have found that H295 and HAC15 expressed IGF2 at a >1800-fold higher level than SW13. mTOR inhibitors suppressed cell growth in a dose-/time-dependent manner in all cell lines. SW13 were the most sensitive to these effects. Sirolimus inhibited H295 colony surviving fraction and size. These effects were not antagonized by IGF2, suggesting the involvement of other autocrine regulators of mTOR pathways. In H295, sirolimus activated escape pathways. The blocking of endogenously produced IGF2 increased the antiproliferative effects of sirolimus on H295. Cortisol production by H295 and HAC15 was inhibited by sirolimus. The current study demonstrates that mTOR inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and cortisol production in ACC cells. Different ACC cells have different sensitivity to the mTOR inhibitors. mTOR could be a target for the treatment of human ACCs, but variable responses might be expected. In selected cases of ACC, the combined targeting of mTOR and IGF2 could have greater effects than mTOR inhibitors alone.