Based on pioneering work by Huggins, Hodges and others, hormonal therapies have been established as an effective approach for advanced prostate cancer (PC) for the past eight decades. However, it quickly became evident that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) via surgical or medical castration accomplishes inadequate inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) axis, with clinical resistance inevitably emerging due to adrenal and intratumoral sources of androgens and other mechanisms. Early efforts to augment ADT by adding adrenal-targeting agents (aminoglutethimide, ketoconazole) or AR antagonists (flutamide, bicalutamide, nilutamide, cyproterone) failed to achieve overall survival (OS) benefits, although they did exhibit some evidence of limited clinical activity. More recently, four new androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSIs) successfully entered clinical practice. Specifically, the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone acetate and the second generation AR antagonists (enzalutamide, apalutamide and darolutamide) achieved OS benefits for PC patients, confirmed the importance of reactivated AR signaling in castration-resistant PC and validated important concepts that had been proposed in the field several decades ago but had remained so far unproven, including adrenal-targeted therapy and combined androgen blockade. The past decade has seen steady advances toward more comprehensive AR axis targeting. Now the question is raised whether we have accomplished the maximum AR axis inhibition possible or there is still room for improvement. This review, marking the 80-year anniversary of ADT and 10-year anniversary of successful ARSIs, examines their current clinical use and discusses future directions, in particular combination regimens, to maximize their efficacy, delay emergence of resistance and improve patient outcomes.
Nicholas Mitsiades and Salma Kaochar
Salma Kaochar, Aleksandra Rusin, Christopher Foley, Kimal Rajapakshe, Matthew Robertson, Darlene Skapura, Cammy Mason, Karen BermandeRuiz, Alexey Mikhailovich Tyryshkin, Jenny Deng, Jin Na Shin, Warren Fiskus, Jianrong Dong, Shixia Huang, Nora M. Navone, Christel M Davis, Erik A Ehli, Cristian Coarfa, and Nicholas Mitsiades
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains highly lethal and in need of novel, actionable therapeutic targets. The pioneer factor GATA2 is a significant prostate cancer (PC) driver and linked to poor prognosis. GATA2 directly promotes androgen receptor (AR) gene expression (both full-length and splice-variant) and facilitates AR binding to chromatin, recruitment of coregulators, and target gene transcription. Unfortunately, there is no clinically applicable GATA2 inhibitor available at the moment. Using a bioinformatics algorithm, we screened in silico 2,650 clinically relevant drugs for a potential GATA2 inhibitor. Validation studies used cytotoxicity assays (MTT), global gene expression analysis, reporter assay, reverse phase protein array analysis (RPPA), and immunoblotting. We examined target engagement via cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), ChIP-qPCR, and GATA2 DNA-binding assay. We identified the vasodilator dilazep as a potential GATA2 inhibitor and confirmed on-target activity via CETSA. Dilazep exerted anticancer activity across a broad panel of GATA2-dependent PC cell lines in vitro and in a PDX model in vivo. Dilazep inhibited GATA2 recruitment to chromatin and suppressed the cell cycle program, transcriptional programs driven by GATA2, AR, and c-MYC, and the expression of several oncogenic drivers, including AR, c-MYC, FOXM1, CENPF, EZH2, UBE2C, and RRM2, as well as of several mediators of metastasis, DNA damage repair and stemness. In conclusion, we provide, via an extensive compendium of methodologies, proof-of-principle that a small molecule can inhibit GATA2 function and suppress its downstream AR, c-MYC, and other PC-driving effectors. We propose GATA2 as a therapeutic target in CRPC.