In papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), oncogenes activate a transcriptional program including the upregulation of CXCL10 chemokine, which stimulates proliferation and invasion. Furthermore, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activators thiazolidinediones (TZDs) modulate CXCL10 secretion in normal thyroid follicular cells (TFC), and inhibit PTC growth. Until now, no study has evaluated the effect of cytokines on CXCL10 secretion in PTCs, nor the effect of PPARγ activation. The combined effects of interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) stimulation on CXCL10 secretion in primary cells from PTCs and TFC were tested. Furthermore, the effect of PPARγ activation by TZDs, on CXCL10 secretion and proliferation in these cell types was studied. In primary cultures of TFC and PTCs CXCL10 production was absent under basal conditions; a similar dose-dependent secretion of CXCL10 was induced by IFNγ in both cell types. TNFα alone induced a slight but significant CXCL10 secretion only in PTCs. The stimulation with IFNγ+TNFα induced a synergistic CXCL10 release in both cell types; however, a secretion more than ten times higher was induced in PTCs. Treatment of TFC with TZDs dose-dependently suppressed IFNγ+TNFα-induced CXCL10 release, while TZDs stimulated CXCL10 secretion in PTCs. A significant antiproliferative effect by TZDs was observed only in PTCs. In conclusion, a dysregulation of CXCL10 secretion has been shown in PTCs. In fact, a CXCL10 secretion more than ten times higher has been induced by IFNγ+TNFα in PTCs with respect to TFC. Moreover, TZDs inhibited CXCL10 secretion in TFC and stimulated it in PTCs. The effect of TZDs on CXCL10 was unrelated to the significant antiproliferative effect in PTCs.
Alessandro Antonelli, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Frascerra, Simona Piaggi, Stefania Gelmini, Cristiana Lupi, Michele Minuto, Piero Berti, Salvatore Benvenga, Fulvio Basolo, Claudio Orlando and Paolo Miccoli
Michaela Luconi, Monica Mangoni, Stefania Gelmini, Giada Poli, Gabriella Nesi, Michela Francalanci, Nicola Pratesi, Giulia Cantini, Adriana Lombardi, Monica Pepi, Tonino Ercolino, Mario Serio, Claudio Orlando and Massimo Mannelli
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. The lack of a specific and effective medical treatment is due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying tumor growth. Research on potential drugs able to specifically interfere with tumor proliferation is essential to develop more efficacious therapies. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ), an anti-diabetic drug with in vitro anti-tumor properties, on ACC proliferation in a xenograft model obtained by s.c. injection of human ACC H295R cells in athymic mice. When the tumor size reached 5 mm, animals were allocated to 5 mg/kg RGZ- or water-treated groups. Tumor volume was measured twice a week. A significant reduction of tumor growth in RGZ versus control (control) group was observed and was already maximal following 17 day treatment (1−T/C=75.4% (43.7–93.8%)). After 31 days of treatment, mice were killed and tumor analyzed. Tumor histological evaluation revealed characteristics of invasiveness, richness in small vessels and mitotic figures in control group, while RGZ group tumors presented non infiltrating borders, few vessels, and many apoptotic bodies. Tumor immunohistochemistry showed that Ki-67 was reduced in RGZ versus control group. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of angiogenic (VEGF), vascular (CD31), proliferation (BMI-1), and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) genes in RGZ versus control group tumors. The same inhibitory effects were confirmed in in vitro RGZ-treated H295R. Our findings support and expand the role of RGZ in controlling ACC proliferation and angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro.