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Taymeyah Al-Toubah, Stefano Partelli, Mauro Cives, Valentina Andreasi, Franco Silvestris, Massimo Falconi, Daniel A Anaya and Jonathan Strosberg

New systemic treatments have improved the therapeutic landscape for patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). While drugs such as everolimus, sunitinib, temozolomide and 177Lutetium-dotatate are appropriate for patients with widespread disease progression, local treatment approaches may be more appropriate for patients with unifocal progression. Surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), hepatic arterial embolization (HAE) or radiation, can control discrete sites of progression, allowing patients to continue their existing therapy and sparing them toxicities of a new systemic treatment. We identified 69 patients with metastatic GEP-NETs who underwent a local treatment for focal progression in the setting of widespread metastases. Twenty-six percent underwent resection, 27% RFA, 23% external beam radiation and 23% selective HAE. With a median follow-up of 25 months, 42 (61%) patients subsequently progressed to the point of requiring additional intervention (12 locoregional, 30 systemic) for disease control. Median time to new systemic treatment was 32 months (95% CI, 16.5–47.5 months). Median time to any additional intervention was 19 months (95% CI, 8.7–25.3 months). Control of local sites of progression enabled the majority of patients to remain on their existing systemic treatment and avoid potential toxicities associated with salvage systemic therapy.

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Simona Falletta, Stefano Partelli, Corrado Rubini, Dominik Nann, Andrea Doria, Ilaria Marinoni, Vanessa Polenta, Carmelina Di Pasquale, Ettore degli Uberti, Aurel Perren, Massimo Falconi and Maria Chiara Zatelli

Medical therapy of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NET) may take advantage of Everolimus treatment. However, the extent of therapeutic response cannot be predicted. This study was aimed to identify the possible predictive markers of response to Everolimus in P-NET. We found that Everolimus reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in primary cultures of 6 P-NET (P-NET-R), where the proliferative and antiapoptotic effects of IGF1 were blocked by Everolimus. On the contrary, 14 P-NET primary cultures (P-NET-NR) were resistant to Everolimus and IGF1, suggesting an involvement of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the mechanism of resistance. The response to Everolimus in vitro was associated with an active AKT/mTOR pathway and seemed to be associated with a greater clinical aggressiveness. In addition, a patient sensitive to Everolimus in vitro was sensitive to this drug in vivo also and showed a positive p-AKT immunohistochemistry (IHC) at tissue level. Similarly, a patient resistant to Everolimus treatment after surgery was not sensitive to the drug in vitro and had a negative p-AKT IHC staining. Therefore, present data confirm that P-NET primary cultures may be considered a model for testing medical treatment efficacy and that IHC characterization of p-AKT might help in identifying human P-NET who can benefit from Everolimus treatment. These data encourage conducting a prospective multicenter study involving different groups of P-NET patients treated with Everolimus.