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Tae-Hwan Kim, Mi Yeon Lee, Sung Min Jin, and Sang Hyuk Lee

The impact of serum thyroid hormone levels on thyroid cancer risk is unclear. Some studies reported that elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is associated with higher risk for incidence of thyroid cancer, but other studies reported no relationship. We conducted a large cohort study in 164,596 South Korean men and women who were free of thyroid cancer at baseline and underwent health examination with hormone levels of thyroid function. A parametric proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. During 2,277,749.78 person-years of follow-up, 1280 incident thyroid cancers were identified (men = 593, women = 687). Among men, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for thyroid cancer comparing low levels of TSH with normal levels of TSH was 2.95 (1.67–5.23), whereas the corresponding HR (95% CI) in women was 1.5 (0.88–2.55). High levels of free T4 and free T3 were also associated with incident thyroid cancer in both men and women. In clinical implication, overt hyperthyroidism is associated with thyroid cancer in both men and women. Within the euthyroid range, the highest tertile of TSH was associated with a lower risk of thyroid cancer than the lowest TSH tertile and the highest FT4 tertile was associated with a higher risk of thyroid cancer than the lowest FT4 tertile in both men and women. Our finding indicates that low levels of TSH and high levels of FT4, even within the normal range, were associated with an increased risk of incident thyroid cancer.

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Seog Yun Park, Yuh-S Jung, Chang Hwan Ryu, Chang Yoon Lee, You Jin Lee, Eun Kyung Lee, Seok-Ki Kim, Tae Sung Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Jeyun Jang, Daeyoon Park, Seung Myung Dong, Jae-Goo Kang, Jin Soo Lee, and Junsun Ryu

We undertook this study to estimate an accurate incidence and spread patterns of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of solitary PTC by using whole-specimen mapping of all specimens after a total thyroidectomy. Enrolled prospectively in this whole-thyroid mapping study are 82 consecutive patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of solitary PTC. All thyroidectomy specimens were serially sectioned in 2 mm thickness and whole-thyroid mapping was carried out for additional foci of occult PTC. The frequencies of occult lesions detected in the whole and contralateral lobe were determined, and clinicopathologic factors associated with multifocality were assessed. Whole-thyroid mapping revealed 66 occult PTC lesions missed by preoperative ultrasound in 37 (45.1%) of the 82 patients. The great majority (92.5%) of the occult PTC was smaller than 3 mm in size and 25 patients (30.5%) had contralateral lesions. We found that the male sex was an independent predictor of multifocality (odds ratio (OR), 3.00; 95% CI, 1.11–8.14), adjusting for preoperative findings. Analysis with pathologic parameters showed that the male sex (OR, 5.03; 95% CI, 1.68–15.08) and extrathyroidal extensions (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.03–8.95) were associated with multifocal PTC. However, none of the clinicopathologic factors evaluated predicted contralateral PTC. Our study demonstrates the diagnostic limitations of ultrasound for the detection of multifocal PTC and the need to consider the possibility of occult lesions in the management of solitary PTC, especially in male patients.