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Open access

Tobias Hofving, Viktor Sandblom, Yvonne Arvidsson, Emman Shubbar, Gülay Altiparmak, John Swanpalmer, Bilal Almobarak, Anna-Karin Elf, Viktor Johanson, Erik Elias, Erik Kristiansson, Eva Forssell-Aronsson and Ola Nilsson

177Lu-octreotate is an FDA-approved radionuclide therapy for patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) expressing somatostatin receptors. The 177Lu-octreotate therapy has shown promising results in clinical trials by prolonging progression-free survival, but complete responses are still uncommon. The aim of this study was to improve the 177Lu-octreotate therapy by means of combination therapy. To identify radiosensitising inhibitors, two cell lines, GOT1 and P-STS, derived from small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SINETs), were screened with 1,224 inhibitors alone or in combination with external radiation. The screening revealed that inhibitors of Hsp90 can potentiate the tumour cell-killing effect of radiation in a synergistic fashion (GOT1; false discovery rate <3.2×10-11). The potential for Hsp90 inhibitor ganetespib to enhance the anti-tumour effect of 177Lu-octreotate in an in vivo setting was studied in the somatostatin receptor-expressing GOT1 xenograft model. The combination led to a larger decrease in tumour volume relative to monotherapies and the tumour-reducing effect was shown to be synergistic. Using patient-derived tumour cells from eight metastatic SINETs, we could show that ganetespib enhanced the effect of 177Lu-octreotate therapy for all investigated patient tumours. Levels of Hsp90 protein expression were evaluated in 767 SINETs from 379 patients. We found that Hsp90 expression was upregulated in tumour cells relative to tumour stroma in the vast majority of SINETs. We conclude that Hsp90 inhibitors enhance the tumour-killing effect of 177Lu-octreotate therapy synergistically in SINET tumour models and suggest that this potentially promising combination should be further evaluated.

Open access

Tobias Hofving, Yvonne Arvidsson, Bilal Almobarak, Linda Inge, Roswitha Pfragner, Marta Persson, Göran Stenman, Erik Kristiansson, Viktor Johanson and Ola Nilsson

Experimental models of neuroendocrine tumour disease are scarce, and no comprehensive characterisation of existing gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (GEPNET) cell lines has been reported. In this study, we aimed to define the molecular characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity of these cell lines. We therefore performed immunophenotyping, copy number profiling, whole-exome sequencing and a large-scale inhibitor screening of seven GEPNET cell lines. Four cell lines, GOT1, P-STS, BON-1 and QGP-1, displayed a neuroendocrine phenotype while three others, KRJ-I, L-STS and H-STS, did not. Instead, these three cell lines were identified as lymphoblastoid. Characterisation of remaining authentic GEPNET cell lines by copy number profiling showed that GOT1, among other chromosomal alterations, harboured losses on chromosome 18 encompassing the SMAD4 gene, while P-STS had a loss on 11q. BON-1 had a homozygous loss of CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and QGP-1 harboured amplifications of MDM2 and HMGA2. Whole-exome sequencing revealed both disease-characteristic mutations (e.g. ATRX mutation in QGP-1) and, for patient tumours, rare genetic events (e.g. TP53 mutation in P-STS, BON-1 and QGP-1). A large-scale inhibitor screening showed that cell lines from pancreatic NETs to a greater extent, when compared to small intestinal NETs, were sensitive to inhibitors of MEK. Similarly, neuroendocrine NET cells originating from the small intestine were considerably more sensitive to a group of HDAC inhibitors. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive characterisation of GEPNET cell lines, demonstrate their relevance as neuroendocrine tumour models and explore their therapeutic sensitivity to a broad range of inhibitors.

Free access

Tobias Hofving, Yvonne Arvidsson, Bilal Almobarak, Linda Inge, Roswitha Pfragner, Marta Persson, Göran Stenman, Erik Kristiansson, Viktor Johanson and Ola Nilsson

Free access

Viktor Johanson, Håkan Ahlman, Peter Bernhardt, Svante Jansson, Lars Kölby, Fredrik Persson, Göran Stenman, Christina Swärd, Bo Wängberg, Mats Stridsberg and Ola Nilsson

Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, resulting in constitutive activation of the RET tyrosine kinase. A substantial proportion of sporadic MTCs also have RET mutations, making the RET tyrosine kinase a potential therapeutic target in MTC. We have established a transplantable MTC in nude mice from a sporadic human MTC carrying a RET C634R mutation. Transplanted tumors had an exponential growth rate with an approximate doubling time of about 3 weeks, and expressed a neuroendocrine phenotype characteristic of MTC, e.g., expression of calcitonin, chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin, synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2), vesicular monoamine transporter-1 and -2, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 8/18, epithelial cadherin, and neural cell adhesion molecule. Plasma calcitonin and CgA levels were elevated in tumor-bearing mice and correlated with tumor size. Cytogenetic analysis, including spectral karyotyping, confirmed the human origin of the xenografted tumors and demonstrated an abnormal, near triploid karyotype. Treatment of tumor-bearing nude mice with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD6474, which specifically inhibits RET, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and vascular endothelium growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases, resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth. Oral ZD6474 given once daily (250 mg/kg, 5 days/week) reduced tumor volume to 11% when compared with controls after 4 weeks. Our results show that this transplantable MTC, designated GOT2, represents a novel and useful model for studies of MTC and RET tyrosine kinase-dependent tumor growth.