Cardiomyopathy is a frequent complication of pheochromocytoma, and echocardiography is the most accessible method for its evaluation. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical significance of classical and novel echocardiographic parameters of cardiac function in 24 patients with pheochromocytomas (PPGL) compared to 24 subjects with essential hypertension (EH). Fourteen PPGL patients were reassessed after successful surgery. Left ventricular hypertrophy was four times more prevalent in patients with PPGL vs EH (75% vs 17%; P = 0.00005). Left ventricular mass index (LVMi) significantly correlated with urine metanephrine (MN) (rs = 0.452, P = 0.00127) and normetanephrine (NMN) (rs = 0.484, P = 0.00049). Ejection fraction (EF) and endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) were normal in all participants and did not correlate with urine metanephrines. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was significantly lower in PPGL compared to EH group (−16.54 ± 1.83 vs −19.43 ± 2.19; P < 0.00001) and revealed a moderate significant positive correlations with age (rs = 0.489; P = 0.015), LVMi (rs = 0.576, P < 0.0001), MN (rs = 0.502, P = 0.00028) and NMN (rs = 0.580, P < 0.0001). Relative wall thickness (RWT) showed a strong positive correlation with urine MN (rs = 0.559, P < 0.0001) and NMN (rs = 0.689, P < 0.00001). Markedly decreased LVMi (118.2 ± 26.9 vs 102.9 ± 22.3; P = 0.007) and significant improvement in GLS (−16.64 ± 1.49 vs −19.57 ± 1.28; P < 0.001) was observed after surgery. ΔGLS depended significantly on the follow-up duration. In conclusion, classical echocardiographic parameters usually used for assessment of systolic cardiac function are not reliable tests in pheochromocytoma patients. Instead, GLS seems to be a better predictor for the severity and the reversibility of catecholamine-induced myocardial function damage in these subjects. RWT should be measured routinely as an early indicator of cardiac remodeling.
Atanaska Elenkova, Rabhat Shabani, Elena Kinova, Vladimir Vasilev, Assen Goudev, and Sabina Zacharieva
Vladimir Vasilev, Adrian F Daly, Giampaolo Trivellin, Constantine A Stratakis, Sabina Zacharieva, and Albert Beckers
Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) is one of the most frequent conditions associated with an inherited presentation of pituitary tumors. FIPA can present with pituitary adenomas of any secretory/non-secretory type. Mutations in the gene for the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been identified in approximately 20% of FIPA families and are the most frequent cause (29%) of pituitary gigantism. Pituitary tumors in FIPA are larger, occur at a younger age and display more aggressive characteristics and evolution than sporadic adenomas. This aggressiveness is especially marked in FIPA kindreds with AIP mutations. Special attention should be paid to young patients with pituitary gigantism and/or macroadenomas, as AIP mutations are prevalent in these groups. Duplications on chromosome Xq26.3 involving the gene GPR101 lead to X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG), a syndrome of pituitary gigantism beginning in early childhood; three kindreds with X-LAG have presented in the setting of FIPA. Management of pituitary adenomas in the setting of FIPA, AIP mutations and GPR101 duplications is often more complex than in sporadic disease due to early onset disease, aggressive tumor growth and resistance to medical therapy.